Geopolitical Informations

9.593 million (2013)
Total area
449,964 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Riksdag (unicameral)

Latest News

Sweden turns goal to reach carbon neutrality in 2045 into law

Sweden has officially committed to reach carbon neutrality by 2045, as the country’s government reports on its website. The Swedish parliament has passed a new climate policy law on Thursday, June 15. The parliamentary vote ended 254 against 41, with only the extreme-right Swedish Democrats refusing to give their consent according to Climate Home. The read more…

Sweden announces plan to go carbon neutral by 2045

Sweden has set one of the most ambitious climate goals of any developed nation, calling for the phasing out of greenhouse gas emissions by 2045. On Thursday of last week, deputy prime minister and minister for climate, Isabella Lovin, signed a referral of law that will bind Sweden to net zero emissions by 2045. It read more…

ECJ rules Sweden’s renewables support scheme is in line with EU law

In a landmark ruling, the Luxembourg-based Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) on Tuesday (July, 1) said that Sweden’s renewable energy support scheme is compatible with EU Renewable Energy Directive. The Ålands Vindkraft AB v. Energimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency) case was previously brought to a regional Swedish court by Finnish wind company Alands Vindkraft, read more…

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 69.72 8.15 276.81
1991 70.29 8.16 282.3
1992 73 8.42 296.63
1993 72.54 8.32 301
1994 74.89 8.53 298.74
1995 74.51 8.44 285.95
1996 79.76 9.02 301.25
1997 73.22 8.28 269.28
1998 8.38 261.82
1999 73.13 8.26 246.59
2000 7.78 222.69
2001 68.38 7.69 218
2002 7.83 217.51
2003 70.75 7.9 215.05
2004 69.36 7.71 202.28
2005 66.11 7.32 186.88
2006 63.7 7.01 172.64
2007 61.81 6.76 162.16
2008 59.63 6.47 157.41
2009 56.83 6.11 157.94
2010 62.01 6.61 161.74
2011 59.68 6.32 151.24

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.



Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 165,998 2437,193
Oil 0 13453,225
Natural gas 0 1153,003
Nuclear 15650,436 15650,436
Hydro 5698,704 5698,704
Geothermal 0 0
Solar thermal 11,009 11,009
Solar photovoltaics 1,032 1,032
Tide, wave, ocean 0 0
Wind 523,138 523,138
Biomass 8868,793 8868,793
Biofuels 757,319 757,319
Waste 1210,477 1210,477

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.


National Policy


Sweden national climate change policy is mainly influenced by EU legislation. Sweden, however, has a more ambitious targets than the official commitments accepted under the EU burden sharing agreement, which requires an emission reduction of 17% outside the EU ETS. Sweden is, indeed, committed to reducing emissions in sectors not covered by the EU ETS by 40% in 2020 from 1990 levels and to increase the share of renewable energy to 50% by 2020.

A sustainable energy and climate policy for the environment, competitiveness and long-term stability (Integrated climate and energy policy)
In 2009, Parliament approved a new climate and energy policy (based on two Government bills 2008/09: 162 and 2008/09: 163) that sets a number of targets and strategies for 2020:

  • 50% renewable energy
  • 10% renewable energy in the transport sector
  • 20% more efficient energy use
  • 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions
  • Vehicle fleet that is independent of fossil fuels in 2030.

Thesee targets expressly covers activities not included in the EU ETS. In order to achieve the target of at least 50% renewable energy by 2020, the Government has put forward a number of proposals, including the further development of the electricity certificate scheme for renewable electricity generation.The vision for 2050 is that Sweden should have no net emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

Act on Electricity certificates
In accordance with Act No. 2011:1200 and Regulation on Electricity certificates – Regulation No. 2011:1480 electricity producers whose electricity production meets the requirements  receive one electricity certificate unit for each MWh of electricity that they produce from the following  sources: wind power, solar energy, wave energy, geothermal energy, biofuels, peat and hydro power. Demand for certificates is created by the fact that all electricity suppliers, and also certain electricity end users, are required to purchase certificates corresponding to a certain proportion (quota) of their electricity sales or electricity use. The law instituting the system is in force since 2003. In January 2012, a joint market for electricity certificates between Norway and Sweden has been established .

Action Plan for a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet (2009)

Approved in 2009, the action plan is part of the Swedish flagship legislation on climate and energy policy. It defines the measures to achieve a fossil fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030. The key principle is to put a price on the GHG emissions of the transportation sector and thus encouraging a move towards non-fossil fuel based vehicles, that are becoming cheaper than fossil fuel based vehicles. This is to be achieved through various policy instruments, measures, initiatives and incentives. Among them there are: a tax exemption throughout the first five years for the purchase of environment-friendly vehicles, including an extra subsidy for “super environment-friendly” cars emitting less than 50 grams CO2/Km; full tax exeption for high-ratio blends of renewables into gasoline and diesel; requirement for pumping stations which sell more than 1 000 cubic metres per year  to offer a renewable fuel; binding emission standards for automotive manufacturers at 120 gCO2/km for new passenger cars, which will be gradually reduced to 95 gCO2/km in 2020;

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2008)
According to Article 14 of the European End-use efficiency and Energy Services Directive (2006/32/EC), Member States had to submit their first National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) to the Commission by June 30, 2007. Sweden elaborated its NEEAP in 2008, describing the energy efficiency improvement measures aimed at achieving the savings targets set out in Article 4 of the Directive. The Plan also describes how Sweden complied with the provisions on the exemplary role of the public sector and the provision of information and advice to final consumers. In June 2011 a 2nd NEEAP was submitted to the EU Commission. This plan shows that Sweden will reach the indictaive target of 9 % energy savings by 201. However, because the calculation methods used in Sweden significantly differ from those recommended by the EU Commission, these figures are used only in communication with the Commission.

The Environmental Code (1999)
The Environmental Code came into force on 1 January 1999. It replaced fifteen previous environmental acts which were amalgamated into the Code. The Environmental Code constitutes a modernised, broadened and more stringent environmental legislation aimed at promoting sustainable development.


A society with non-toxic and resource-efficient ecocycles (Government Bill 2002/03:117)

The bill proposes objectives, strategies and measures to create such a society. Waste is both a resource and an environmental problem; a resource to be utilised and an environmental problem to be minimised. Consumers represent an important target group in waste management policy and the Swedish Government wishes to make it easier for everyone to separate their waste, especially that which is hazardous. Recovering packaging and other waste is a sound principle that should be further developed in line with both Swedish and European waste policy. The volume of waste must be reduced and its danger prevented. Waste management should not be seen purely as a resource issue and an environmental problem, but also as part of the infrastructure. Government Bill 2002/03:117 extends the producer responsibility for packaging and wastepaper. It is proposed that Swedish municipalities be given greater influence regarding the information and planning of producer responsibility.


Environmental and traffic safety requirements for government vehicles and trips (2011)
All ordinary vehicles purchased or leased by public authorities are required to be classified as environmentally friendly, as defined by this Act. In addition, fifty per cent of all emergency vehicles (with five seats or less) purchased or leased annually are required to be classified as environmentally friendly. Light duty vehicles are allowed to emit a maximum of 230g CO2 per km. Exceptions from these requirements are made for particular vehicles used by the Police, Customs, Coast Guard, and for some purposes related to protection of individuals.

Super-Green Car Premium Ordinance

The Super-Green Car Premium Ordinance (SFS 2011:1590) came into effect in January 2012 with the purpose of promoting the use and sales of highly fuel-efficient cars with low climate impact. A super-green car is a passenger car that complies with the EU’s latest exhaust emissions limits and which emits no more than 50 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre.

Market Standards for Transport Biofuels (2005)
Implementing the EU Directive 2003/30/EC on the Increased Use of Biofuels for Transport, Sweden released a package of measures to promote biofuels. Taking effect in February 2006, new targets require most gas stations to sell at least one alternative fuel and aim to increase the number of filling stations selling methane and ethanol. From 1 February 2013, to promote renewable energy in the road transport sector, sustainable biofuels in petrol and diesel, in blends of up to 5% by volume, are exempt from the whole of the carbon dioxide tax and most of the energy tax (89% for biofuels in petrol and 84% for biofuels in diesel). E85 and other sustainable high-blend biofuels and biofuels with no fossil content are entirely exempt from carbon dioxide and energy tax on their biomass-based component.


There is currently no national policy for climate change adaptation, and no national agency has the overall responsibility for climate change adaptation in Sweden. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute has been commissioned to create a national knowledge center for climate change adaptation with the purpose of collecting and updating knowledge about vulnerability and climate change adaptation. Additionally, many agencies are working on prevention, increased competence and knowledge, and improved preparedness for disruptions in vital public services.

Climate adaptation portal (in Swedish) http://www.klimatanpassning.se/

International Policy

General features

Party to the UNFCCC (Annex I)

     o    Date of signature: 08 June 1992
o    Date of ratification: 23 June 1993
o    Date of entry into force: 21 March 1994

•    Party to the Kyoto Protocol
o    Date of signature: 29 April 1998
o    Date of ratification: 31 May 2002
o    Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005

•   Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord;
•  Nordic environmental cooperation: is led by the Nordic Council of Ministers: this cooperation has evolved over the last ten years to embrace not only Nordic projects but also the drafting of joint submissions on issues of current concern to the EU, such as the marine environment and the environmental impact of products. The Council is also broadening its cooperation with our regional neighbours (mainly Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia);
•  The Arctic Council: protecting the Arctic environment: the main tasks of the Arctic Council are to protect the Arctic environment and to promote the economic, social and cultural development of the Arctic region;
•   The Barents Euro-Arctic Council: it is an intergovernmental forum in which the countries of Northern Europe cooperate to develop north-west Russia and the northernmost regions of the Nordic countries. The EU has developed a ‘Northern Dimension’ policy, which is endorsed by Russia and Norway as well.

Negotiating position

The EU is the platform for Swedish climate policy. The country, like the other Member States, aims to reduce emissions, increase the efficiency of energy use and increase the proportion of renewable energy. Sweden is aware that greater and faster emission reductions are required to prevent the world’s average temperature from rising by more than two degrees Celsius, which is the target agreed by the heads of government in Copenhagen in 2009. During the negotiation meeting, Sweden underlines the importance of a continued active work within the EU for the development of a legally binding framework for emission reductions that includes all countries, based on the ability and capacity of each country. Sweden pushes for the development of the framework for open reporting and verification of climate emissions being this important to enable major emissions trading and, in the long term, obtain a global price on carbon dioxide. It also asks for a fast establishment of the institutions that were agreed in Cancún, including the Green Climate Fund.

In September 2013, Sweden ha joined the UK, Norway, Ethiopia, South Korea, Colombia and Indonesia in starting a new global initiative, ‘The Global Commission on the Economy and Climate‘, as a contribution to the international climate debate. The project’s final report was launched on 17 September 2014.