Joint Implementation (JI)
The Joint Implementation (JI) is a mechanism that provides flexibility to the way in which countries achieve the binding obligations of the Kyoto Protocol. Its aim is two-fold:

1. The CDM helps non-Annex I (developing) countries achieve sustainable development while not accelerating climate change.
2. The CDM helps Annex I (industrialized and economies-in-transition) countries meet their quantified emissions limits.
The JI achieves these joint aims by asking Annex I countries to invest in sustainable development and climate change mitigation projects in non-Annex I countries. This aids the developing countries, but it also allows industrialized countries to use the emissions that these projects will save as credit that will allow the Annex I countries to pollute back home. These emissions credits are quantified and validated using Emission Reduction Units (ERUs) that can be used in Annex I countries’ carbon trading schemes (such as the EU ETS).

The JI is very similar to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The only difference between the two mechanisms is that the CDM can be run by any country, firm or individual whereas JI projects can only be hosted by a country that has emissions reductions or limitations targets.