Geopolitical Informations

3.407 million (2013)
Total area
176,215 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • General Assembly of Uruguay

Latest News

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Macron’s climate finance rally to accelerate global response to climate change

On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

FOCUS: Carbon Markets within and beyond the Paris deal

One of the key themes under discussion at COP23 was Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which will allow Parties to voluntarily undertake cooperative read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 24.64 7.92 834.90
1991 25.76 8.23 843.30
1992 26.71 8.47 810.09
1993 27.01 8.50 797.94
1994 27.37 8.55 753.72
1995 28.35 8.79 792.10
1996 29.35 9.04 776.67
1997 29.35 9.04 776.67
1998 30.00 9.11 699.77
1999 31.17 9.42 741.54
2000 29.83 8.98 723.49
2001 29.49 8.86 743.79
2002 29.03 8.72 793.63
2003 29.04 8.73 787.46
2004 30.03 9.03 775.62
2005 29.97 9.01 720.35
2006 31.26 9.39 721.68
2007 31.21 9.35 676.41
2008 33.48 10.00 676.93
2009 33.80 10.06 668.51
2010 32.94 9.77 597.92
2011 34.32 10.14 584.75

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.



Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 0 2,465
Oil 0 2086,483
Natural Gas 0 64,384
Nuclear 0 0
Hydro 745,276 745,276
Geothermal 0 0
Solar Thermal 0 0
Solar Photovoltaics 0 0
Tide, Wave, Ocean 0 0
Wind 5,848 5,848
Biomass 1286,941 1286,941
Biofuels 0 1,5
Waste 0 0

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.


National Policy

The Ministry of “Vivienda, Ordenamiento Territorial y Medio Ambiente” (MVOTMA) is the national authority responsible for the implementation and application of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, and it must establish mitigation and adaptation measures to climate change and regulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) among other functions.

The National Response to Climate Change and Variability System (Sistema Nacional de Respuesta al Cambio Climatico y la variabilidad, SNRCC) was created on May 20, 2009 by Decree 238/09 [pdf]. The main objective of SNRCC is to coordinate and plan public and private actions necessary for risk prevention, mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

The Law 18.597 of 2009 [pdf] establishes the efficient use of energy through a National Plan of Efficient Energy [pdf]. It was also approved a Decree on the Promotion of Renewable Energy (D. 354/09) and the Law 18.585 of 2009 [pdf], promoting the use of solar energy.

Uruguay approved a National Plan for Climate Change (Plan Nacional de Respuesta al Cambio Climatico – PNRCC –pdf) in 2010. The PNRCC is fundamentally a strategic framework that identifies the lines of action and measures to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases in Uruguay and for adaptation of society and major development sectors to the impacts of climate variability and climate change.
In 2011, Uruguay approved the Law 18.747 (pdf) which grants tax benefits for investment in climate change adaptation for the livestock sector.


Additional sources:

Cinco años de respuestas ante lo desafios del cambio y la variabilidad climatica en Uruguay, SNRCC, May 2014. [pdf]


International Policy

General features


Party to the UNFCCC:

• date of signature: 4 June 1992
• date of ratification: 18 August 1994
• date of entry into force: 16 November 1994

Member of Kyoto protocol:

• date of signature: 29 July 1998
• date of ratification: 5 February 2001
• date of entry into force: 16 February 2005


Uruguay has also ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (1993) and the Convention to Combat Desertification (1999). Uruguay presented three National Communications to the UNFCCC, publishing the Third National Communication in 2010 (pdf). The country also presented two national reports to the Convention to Combat Desertification (last in 2002) and four national reports to the Convention on Biological Diversity (the last in 2010).

In November 2012 Uruguay presented six National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs): five are energy projects and one on sustainable housing.



Negotiating position


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