Despite joining the position of all G20 members except of the US to designate the Paris Agreement as “irreversible”, shortly after the summit in Hamburg Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that Turkey would be currently less inclined to ratify the Paris Agreement, as Reuters report. Erdogan linked this statement directly with the US decision read more…
|Year||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)|
The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.
|Energy Source||Production (ktoe)||TPES (ktoe)|
|Tide, wave, ocean||0||0|
The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.
The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.
Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.
Turkey is an upper middle-income country according to the World Bank classification system, similar to emerging economies like Brazil, China, Mexico, South Africa as well as Russia. Since 1961, it is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Turkey consists of 81 provinces, which cover mostly the Asian continent but partly also the European continent.
Turkey is a representative democratic, secular, rights-based republic in a multi-party, civil-law system. The Grand National Assembly (GNAT) is the legislative power as a unicameral parliament. Following the haisbreadth approval of the constitutional referendum in April 2017, the number of seats in the GNAT was increased from 550 to 600. The members of parliament serve for a four-year term with the next elections expected to take place in 2019. A political party must obtain at least 10 percent in order to become part of the parliament. The GNAT is responsible for the enactment, amendment and repeal of laws. Hence, the members of the parliament have the right to introduce new bills, as have as well the ministers.
Due to the approval of the constitutional referendum in April 2017, the parliamentary system of government was replaced with an executive presidency and a presidential system. As a consequence, the president is now both the head of state and head of government, including the power to appoint and dismiss ministers. The position of the Prime Minister has thus be considerably weakened through the constitutional reform. Moreover, the president has been given as well more control over the judicative, for instance through the right to appoint the members of the Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors. The current president of Turkey is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
As of summer 2017, the political situation in Turkey remains tense. Following the repelled military coup in 2016, the government made the movement of businessman and cleric Fetullah Gülen responsible for the coup d’état and designated the movement as a terrorist organisation. Gülen denies this accusation and in turn suggested that the government itself would have orchestrated the coup to consolidate its power. In the continuation, more than one hundred thousand of people, including not only soldiers but also judges, educational staff, journalists, oppositional politicians and other opponents of the government have been arrested. This has led to criticism and concerns of a developing dictatorship especially of western countries, fuelled by the constitutional referendum widening considerably the power for Erdoğan. In any case, the circumstances are likely to lead to a reduction in the confidence of investors to finance clean energy and other mitigation projects in Turkey.
Strategic Plan 2015-2019
Strategic plans are four-year programs issued by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources to support long-term national targets. The 2015-2019 plan, published in February 2015, evaluates the implementation results from the previous plan and follows up strategies, goals and objectives. Focus is given to governance and stakeholder interaction, technology and innovation, investment environment, supply security, energy efficiency and raw material use. The plan calls for a doubling of coal-based electricity generation and envisages the opening of domestic coal mines to use domestic lignite reserves. In addition to the 67 operating coal-fired power plants with a capacity of 16.3 GW, six power plants are currently under construction with 2.6 GW capacity and 44.7 GW or 63 projects in the planning pipeline (permitted or pre-permitted) according to the Global Coal Plant Tracker. This would result in an increase of total emissions from coal of at least 40 percent. The Turkish banking sector is supporting these plans as a priority, leading to higher financial support for coal than for renewable energies. However, water shortages are casting doubt on the operating efficiency, output and reliability of thermal power plants, and water stress is expected to exacerbate with ongoing climate change.
The previous Strategic Plan, covering the 2010-2014 time span, outlined a strategy for raising awareness about clean energy and set capacity targets for wind power, hydropower and energy efficiency improvements.
Full document available as pdf.
Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023 (2011)
The Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023 is the main executive framework under which the national legislation has identified its priorities and targets with regard to climate issues. The Action Plan 2011-2023 sets out a roadmap to address climate change issues with short-, medium- and long-term actions covering a number of sectors, presented separately in the sections below. The document defines the overarching goal of facilitating the transition to a low carbon economy through an improved information structure and the development of financing models, in accordance with the Climate Change Strategy 2010-2020 (see below).
Full document available here or as pdf.
Climate Change Strategy 2010-2020 (2010)
The Climate Change Strategy 2010-2020 serves as a strategic framework in preparation to the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023. It sets out targets and strategies for GHG emission control in the fields of energy, transportation, industry, waste and AFOLU, as well as adaptation measures. In particular, it called for improving energy efficiency and increasing renewable energy use to gradually move in the direction of zero-carbon emissions, and for reducing energy intensity to 2004 levels by 2020. In addition, it includes the target to reach a share of 30 percent of renewable energies in electricity generation by 2023 and to reduce emissions by 7 percent from electricity by 2020 compared to business-as-usual (BAU).
Full document available as pdf.
Coordination Board on Climate Change 2001
The Coordination Board on Climate Change (CBCC) was established in 2001, restructured in 2004, expanded in 2010 and merged with the Coordination Board on Air Emissions in 2013. Since then, it is called the Coordination Board on Climate Change and Air Management. The board is the main body responsible for tackling climate change and includes relevant ministries and industry representatives. Through this board, Turkey has implemented measures, policies and activities in the areas of energy, agriculture and forestry, transport, industry, waste. Other relevant institutions include the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, the Ministry of Forest and Water Management.
The energy sector is the major source of GHG emissions in Turkey.
In 2016, investments and total installed capacity in geothermal power capacity were globally second highest in Turkey. The country ranks also fourth in total geothermal power capacity per capita. In addition, Turkey possesses the third highest total solar water heating capacity and respective investments were the second highest in the world in 2016 according to the Renewables 2017 Global Status Report of REN21.
However, the potential for renewable energies in Turkey is much higher. Among European countries, Turkey has the highest hdropower, wind power and geothermal power potential and the second highest solar power potential. Turkey has also a large energy-saving potential and has been assessed to have the worst performance among G20 countries in terms of the development of carbon intensity, which is still on the rise.
Electricity Market Law No.6446 (2013)
The law amends Law No. 4628 of 2001, setting a new legislation for the electricity market that provides specifications for all linked operations, such as electricity generation, transmission, distribution, sale, import and export. The law aims to increase the liberalisation of the market sector up to a share of 75 percent. The functionality of market operations is enhanced through the creation of the Energy Markets Operating Corporation (Epias), which will act as a market regulator by establishing a stock exchange and a subsequent reference price. Among Epias’ future plans is the introduction of an emission trading platform at the national level.
Concerning renewable energy production, the law addresses some issues from the previous legislation and encourages investments in clean energy by easing the administrative burden for renewable energy generators. First, a change in the regulation regarding the principle for choosing renewable energy projects competing for the same area gives preference to the project with the highest energy yield, whereas the old regulation favored the project accepting the lowest electricity price. In addition, the minimum energy production level above which renewable energy generators need a production license is increased significantly, and off-grid renewable energy power plants are exempted from the requirement. The new regulation also states that for a group of buildings in the same area producing the same type of renewable energy only a collective license is requested. This facilitates agreements between households and renewable energy equipment companies and helps remove financial and legislative barriers.
Full document available as pdf (in Turkish). More information is available in the analysis of the International Financial Law Review (last accessed on 10 July 2017).
Energy Efficiency Strategy Paper 2012-2023 (2012)
The Energy Efficiency Strategy Paper 2012-2023 is a document committing to improve energy efficiency in all sectors, setting the target of reducing energy intensity by at least 20 percent by 2023. The paper is an executive policy annex to the 2007 Energy Efficiency Law (see below), and defines a series of policies aiming to reduce the amount of energy consumed per capita to help meet the 2023 target.
Full document available as pdf.
Political Vision of AK Parti 2023
The vision calls for making Turkey one of the world’s ten largest economies by 2023, the hundredth anniversary of the Turkish Republic. As such, it also includes several targets for the energy sector. In general, it envisages an increase of total installed power generation from 64 GW in 2013 to 120 GW until 2023 as well as a significant expansion of the transmission grid and power distribution capacity. To attain this goal, all types of power generation sources shall contribute. Hence, coal-fired capacity shall increase to 30 GW based on 15.9 GW and the share of renewable energy should rise to 30 percent of electricity production. Thereby, priority is given to hydropower as the full technically and economically feasible hydropower potential shall be utilised. This would imply an increase from 26 to 66 GW from hydropower, which already contributes more than 25 percent to the Turkish electricty generation. The original targets contained in the vision were to achieve a wind power capacity of 20 GW, solar capacity of 3 GW and 600 MW geothermal power. However, the 2015 National Renewable Energy Action Plan foresees an increase of solar capacity to 5 GW and 1 GW geothermal power. In turn, the Turkish INDC (see also section on ‘International Policy’) defined targets of 10 GW solar power but only 16 GW wind power by 2030, indicating a substantial reduction in ambition for wind power and almost no renewable energy capacity additions between 2023 and 2030.
Progress so far indicates that the renwable energy targets are likely to be missed, which is ascribed to bureaucatic hurdles and low investment security.
Nuclear energy is another focus of Turkish energy policy. By 2023, two nuclear power plants are planned to be operational with a capacity of 9.3 GW and a third one under construction.
Full document available here.
Provisions under the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023
Under the framework of the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023 (see above), the country has set out numerous energy-related targets, associated to both energy efficiency and renewable energy. These include:
- Reducing primary energy intensity by 10 percent until 2015 compared to 2008;
- Increasing energy efficiency incentives by 100 percent until 2015;
- Reducting electricity distribution losses to 8 percent by 2023;
- Adoption of energy efficiency standards in commercial and public buildings with areas larger than 10,000 m2 and in at least one million residential buildings by 2023;
- Reducting energy consumption of public buildings by 10 percent until 2015 and 20 percent until 2023;
- Supply of at least 20 percent of the energy demand of new buildings with renewable energies by 2017;
- Limiting GHG emissions from coal-fired power plants by using cleaner and more efficient technologies;
- Reducting GHG emissions from new settlements by 10 percent compared to existing settlements until 2023.
In parallel to these specific targets, some general commitments to develop the capacity for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use, to support related R&D activities and technological development, and to curb GHG emissions have been set.
Law No. 5346 on Utilisation of Renewable Energy Sources for the Purposes of Generating Electrical Energy (Renewable Energy Law) 2005 (latest revised in 2010)
The law was issued in 2005 and last amended in 2010, with the objectives of: exploiting renewable energy sources in a secure, economic and qualified manner, to increase the diversification of energy resources, reducing GHG emissions, assessing waste products, protecting the environment, and developing manufacturing industries connected to the realisation of these objectives. Included in the legislation are procedures for the conservation of areas with renewable energy resources, certification of renewable energy-generated electricity and the use of renewable energy sources.
A national target for the growth of RE-sourced electricity is set at 30 percent by 2023. As a means to meeting this target, incentives for domestic energy projects are given through a Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme providing financial assistance for production of electricity from solar, wind, hydro, biomass, biogas and geothermal power sources. The scheme covers all renewable energy plants built in the time frame 2005-2015, regardless of their size, for a 10-year period. However, an installation capacity cap for solar PV was set at 600 MW by 2013. Production incentives at the local level can provide additional financial support that makes the production costs comparable to the electricity price paid by end-users. In addition, renewable energy generators enjoy an 85 percent discount on transmission costs for ten years.
RES Certificates are granted to generators under the rationale of identifying and monitoring clean energy purchase and sale in the domestic and international markets. Energy retailers operating in the national market are obliged to purchase a percentage of their electricity from generators with a RES Certificate. Within this system, the minimum purchase price for RE electricity is the national average of electricity price in the previous year calculated by the authority.
Under the law, grid operators have the obligation to provide grid access to RE generators, removing barriers to entry for independent power producers (IPPs), who also benefit from the FIT scheme.
Full document available as pdf. Full amendment of 2010 as well available as pdf. More information is available in the report on the Turkish Solar Power Market from the US Commercial Service.
Law No. 5627 on Energy Efficiency (2007)
The law is issued with the objective of increasing energy efficiency, reduce waste, decrease energy costs and protect the environment. These objectives are pursued through promotion of energy efficiency in energy generation, transmission, distribution and consumption.
The law defines the administrative structure for energy efficiency policy, monitoring and analysis. Therefore, a General Directorate of Renewable Energy is established with the purpose of supporting the energy efficiency measures through a series of activities including policymaking, monitoring, analysis and research. The main tasks of the General Directorate are to carry out energy efficiency inventories and future projections. create respective reports and assessments, and to establish a framework for energy efficiency auditing in industry.
The law introduces an energy management scheme for industrial, commercial service and public buildings that entails the creation of the energy manager, who is responsible for compliance with energy efficiency legislation. In addition, every building is given an energy identity certificate providing information about energy efficiency and consumption. Services supporting the implementation of the new scheme are provided by energy efficiency consultancy companies that report their yearly activities to the General Directorate.
Standardised energy performances for different types of buildings are also described in the regulation, which includes norms, standards, minimum performance criteria, data collection and control procedures. On an industry level, a specific regulation with particular focus on energy generation is provided, introducing a support scheme for industrial energy efficiency improvements that covers up to 30 percent of the investment cost.
Additionally, the law includes principles and procedures to increase the efficiency of power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks, demand-side management and the utilisation of waste heat in thermal plants.
Moreover, it encourages the blending of fossil fuels with biofuels and hydrogen. Regarding to the transportation sector, the law also contains regulations on vehicle fuel consumption and raised efficiency standards in vehicles. Further, it aims to promote mass transportation and the installation of advanced traffic systems.
Full document available as pdf.
Law No.5686 on Geothermal Resources and Mineral Waters 2007
The law, which represents an addition to the Renewable Energy Law, strives to increase the production and consumption of geothermal energy. It outlines the procedures of licensing and auditing of involved firms, and it includes environmental safeguards to be complied with in respective activities.
Provisions in the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023
The section of the Climate Change Action Plan 2012-2023 (see above) addressing transportation sets out a series of commitments and targets, most notably;
- Increase the share of rail n freight transportation from 5 percent in 2009 to 15 percent in 2023 and in passenger transportation from 2 percent to 10 percent; increase the share of seawys in freight transportation from 2.7 percent of tonne/km to 10 percent and in passenger transportation from 0.4 percent in passenger/km to 4 percent; decrease the share of highways respectively;
- Restructure urban transportation and organise sustainable transportation planning in cities;
- Assist the diffusion of alternative fuels and clean vehicle technologies through administrative and legislative support;
- Increase energy efficiency in transportation.
Initiatives also include the enhancement of motor vehicle fuels, the expansion of metro and light rail networks in cities, etc. However, there are no fuel economy or CO2 emissions standards in the transport sector.
Provisions in the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023
A series of directives and targets concerning waste management are included in the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023 (see above). The plan aims to regulate waste management practices through a number of measures. Targets include the ending of uncontrolled waste disposal by 2023, the establishment of an integrated solid waste disposal system and the reduction of the quantity of landfilled biodegradable waste to 75, 40 and 35 percent of the total landfilled fraction by 2015, 2018 and 2025 respectively, compared to 2005.
Waste Management Action Plan 2008-2012
The Waste Management Action Plan 2008-2012 provided a framework for increasing waste re-use and recovery at the national level. The document presented action plans for both solid waste and hazardous solid waste, including an analysis of the existing situation, targets for the covered time span and action plans for different towns in Turkey.
Full document available as pdf (in Turkish).
Regulation on Packaging and Packaging Waste Control 2007
Commonly known as Packaging Waste Control, this regulation defines yearly targets in relation to recovery rates of different materials – glass, plastic, metal and paper/cardboard. The 2020 target of recovery rate for all these four categories is set at 60 percent.
Full document available as pdf (in Turkish).
Provision in the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023
The Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023 (see above) defines certain guidelines and targets in relation to agriculture, forestry and land use change.
Regarding agriculture, main areas of work relate to the identification of the main sectoral GHG emission reduction potentials, as well as the identification and decrease of the rate of GHG emissions from crop and animal production.
Targets set in the forestry sector demand to increase forest carbon sequestration by 15 percent by 2020 compared to 2007 levels and to reduce deforestation and forest damage by 20 percent by 2020 compared to 2007 levels.
The strategy in relation to land use change defines the following goals: to integrate climate change in land use and land use change management strategies by 2015; to increase carbon sequestration in agricultural forestry activities by 10 percent by 2020 compared to 2007 levels; to increase the carbon stock in pastures and meadows by 3 percent by 2020; and to maintain the carbon stock in wetlands by 2020.
In addition, a more general objective of strengthening the institutional and legal capacity to contrast climate change in relation to these sectors is set.
Reforestation Campaign 2008-2013
The campaign aimed to expand forest areas by 2.3 million ha and to sequester 181.4 million tonnes of CO2 over the course of 20 years. Other reforestation and deforestation activities are under way.
Law No.5043 on Soil Conservation and Land Use 2005
The law aims to contribute to the sequestration of carbon next to its primary goal of conserving soils. The same applies to the Law on Grassland and Pasture Conservation.
Turkey’s National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Action Plan 2013
The issuing of a National Adaptation Strategy stems from the fact that climatic forecasts have identified major negative impacts of climate change on the Turkish economy affecting all sectors, the most affected being agriculture and other sectors that are dependent on water resources. The strategy provides policy support and strategic planning for adapting to the impacts of climate change. The text has been prepared in the context of United Nations Joint Programme on Enhancing the Capacity of Turkey to Adapt to Climate Change that has been executed under the coordination of Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation. The document details the need for a national adaptation strategy, the method for developing the strategy, the principles and framework of the strategy, and an action plan for the six sectors covered, supported by technical and scientific studies and participatory processes. The six sectors are: water resource management; agriculture and food security; ecosystem services, biological diversity, and forestry; natural disaster risk management; public health; and crosscutting issues.
Full document available as pdf.
Provisions in the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023
Adaptation is among the areas addressed in the Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023 (see above), in which it is stated that part of the national strategy consists of the identification of agricultural and other sectoral needs in order to facilitate adaptation and combat climate change. Moreover, climate change shall be integrated particularly into water resource management policies. Interagency cooperation and coordination on climate change adaptation chall be strengthened.
Website of the Turkish Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
Profile of Turkey on the website of the International Energy Agency (IEA)
Profile of Turkey on the website of the Grantham Institute on Climate Change and the Environment
Richert, J. (2016): Turkey: Great Potential, Missing Will. In: Roehrkasten, S., Thielges, S. and Quitzow, R. (eds.), ‘Sustainable Energy in the G20. Prospects for a Global Energy Transition’, IASS Study, Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam, Germany.
- Party to the UNFCCC (Annex I)
- Date of signature: —
- Date of ratification: 24 February 2004
- Date of entry into force: 24 May 2004
- Due to its OECD membership, Turkey has been listed under Annex I and II of the Convention. In 2001, Turkey was deleted from Annex II and thus from any obligations to provide support to developing countries. In 2010 at COP16, Turkey was recognised as a country in a situation different from that of other countries included in Annex I. Therefore, Turkey is eligible for funding at least until 2020.
- Party to Kyoto Protocol
- Date of signature: —
- Date of ratification: 28 May 2009
- Date of entry into force: 26 August 2009
- Date of acceptance of the Doha Amendment: —
- Although Turkey is an Annex I country, it was not included in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol and has thus no emission reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol.
- No signatory of the Copenhagen Accord and hence also no Copenhagen Pledge
- No Party to the Paris Agreement yet
- Date of signature: 22 April 2016
- Date of ratification: —
- Date of entry into force: —
- In a press conference after the G20 summit in Hamburg, Germany, in 2017, President Erdogan stated that the US decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement induced Turkey to be less incluned to ratify the accord because the US retreat would jeopardise funding to developing countries. Turkey would have signed the Paris Agreement under the promise to remain eligible for funding. Only if this would be truly the case, the agreeent would be passed through the parliament according to Erdogan. Hence, it seems that Turkey wrings financial concessions to ratify the agreement.
- Post 2020 action:
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in advance of COP21 in Paris in 2015 (for more information on INDCs see here).
- Main targets:
– “Up to” 21 percent GHG emissions reduction from BAU level by 2030 (economy-wide target with all major GHGs; IPCC guidelines were used for methodologies and metrics; baseline and mitigation scenario were quantified for 2025 and 2030);
– Turkey aims to use carbon credits from international market mechanisms to achieve its 2030 mitigation target;
– “Turkey experiences financial and technical constraints in combating climate change” and “remains eligible to official development aid (ODA)”; “Turkey will use domestic sources and receive international financial, technological, technical and capacity building support, including finance from the Green Climate Fund”;
– Increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy production (10 GW solar power, 16 GW wind power, full hydroelectric potential, reducing electricity transmission and distribution losses to 15 percent by 2030);
– Further qualitative goals for the industry, building, agricultural, waste and forestry sectors.
– The Climate Action Tracker rates the Turkish INDC as “inadequate”, indicating that it is not in line with the below 2°C target, let alone 1.5°C.
Multilateral and bilateral cooperation
- Turkey’s foreign energy policy is based entirely on fossil fuel sources focusing on pipelines and energy security. The ambition is to make Turkey an energy trade hub in the region.
Turkey holds a particular status in the international climate change negotiation setting. As a country with historically low GHG emissions, Turkey is identified as a middle income country in international discussions. However, thanks to a large economic growth in the last decade the country has reached considerable economic power and generates significant GHG emissions.
Due to these special circumstances, in 2001 Turkey was deleted from the list of Annex II countries under the UNFCCC and inserted in the Annex I list. The country has not made any pledges to reduce GHG emissions compared to a reference year, but rather to curb emissions in accordance with its national strategies without compromising sustainable development and poverty reduction. UNFCCC Decision 26/CP.7 invited member countries to acknowledge Turkey’s particular status as opposed to other Annex I countries. As of now Turkey is the only Annex I country with no mitigation binding targets and the only OECD country without a national GHG emission target for 2020.
In international negotiations Turkey stands up for its position of Annex I country with no binding targets, putting the accent on its exceptional economic and historical condition. Given this standpoint, the country stresses the importance of receiving sustainable and predictable financial resources.