Among northern-African countries, Tunisia has been a forerunner in terms of environmental awareness. During the Ben Ali era, it has been the first Arab state to set up a ministry for the environment (in 1991); after the 2010 revolution, the National Constituent Assembly inserted a reference to the commitment against climate change in the new read more…
|Year||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)|
The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.
|Energy Source||Production (ktoe)||TPES (ktoe)|
|Tide, wave, ocean||0||0|
The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.
The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.
Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.
Energy data refers to year 2012.
One of the first developing countries to adopt a voluntary policy on energy conservation, Tunisia has directed its efforts to contrast climate change on the energy sector, whose management is seen as a key challenge by the government. Throughout the last decade, a sustained growth in energy demand in complement with declining national gas reserves generated strong dependency on fossil fuel imports. The ever-growing energy demand that the country faces also proved to be an issue due to the limited national installed capacity. The Tunisian strategy combines renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) measures to limit fossil-fired energy consumption; in particular, the efforts in energy efficiency the country undertook proved to be successful to lower energy intensity. Tunisia has an direct interest to curb GHG emissions due to the vulnerability of the country to climate change. Rainfalls decrease, sea level rise, temperature increase and droughts are the most impactful consequences of climate change in the country.
Upon the approval of the new Constitution in 2014, the Tunisian Parliament decided to include an article that expressly refers to climate change and the environment, guaranteeing the rights of its citizens to live in a safe environment and participate to the fight against climate change. Tunisia is one of the few countries that includes climate change in its Constitution.
National Strategy on Climate Change (2012)
Initiated in 2011 with the support of the German agency GIZ, the strategy has the goal of integrating climate change in the country’s development strategies. The strategy lists a series of adaptation and mitigation measures to be implemented in various sectors of the economy, in order to attain the targets defined in the Tunisian Solar Plan (see below).
Document available in pdf format (in French): Tunisia_National Strategy on Climate Change (2012)
National Adaptation Strategy (2007)
Supported by a bilateral agreement with the German government, the strategy was developed through a process that lasted from 2005 to 2007 and was concluded with the creation of a National Climate Council with the tasks of implementing, coordinating and adapting the strategy. The strategy’s main purposes are to develop a long-term approach with an adaptation strategy for climate-induced changes, to integrate the climatic volatility into agricultural and economic policies, and to handle the socio-economic consequences for the agricultural sector across the different economic sectors. The strategy is structured in four key actions: establishing an early-warning system of climate and environment monitoring; securing a rational and efficient use of water resources; help ecosystems preserve their natural capacity to adapt to climate change, especially forests; reorganize agriculture to align the sector towards the new economic landscape created by climate change. In parallel to this strategy, two issue-specific adaptation strategies focusing on agriculture and on sea level rise have been issued.
More information in the MEDPRO report Adaptation to Climate Change in the Southern Mediterranean (2013): MEDPRO_Adaptation to Climate Change in the Southern Mediterranean (2013)
In addition to the national Adaptation Strategy, Tunisia is a participant in numerous programmes that promote adaptation measures at the international and regional level. See the International Policy section for further information.
New Renewable Energy Law (2014)
Initially approved in September 2014, the law was subsequently blocked for being in breach with the new Constitution, with a revised version then approved in May 2015. The new RE law aims to foster private sector engagement in the renewables sector, which was previously inaccessible for private large-scale RE generation. Private investments are encouraged through various measures comprising net metering and feed-in tariff schemes, the possibility to export RE electricity and the introduction of tenders for independent power producers (IPPs). State-controlled utility STEG is also given the possibility to invest in renewables. The law introduces the figure of a regulatory agency, independent from STEG, for renewable energy generation, helping the process of unbundling in the power market. In accordance to the law, a National Energy Plan shall be prepared within 5 years.
More information available on RCREEE’s report AFEX 2015: Renewable Energy (see below)
Plan for the phase-out of fossil subsidies (2014)
Launched in 2014, the plan intends to gradually remove subsidies in all sectors of the economy within seven years. The purpose is to reduce market distortion and reduce the burden on the public budget.
More information available on RCREEE’s report AFEX 2015: Renewable Energy (see below)
Fund for Energy Transition (FTE) (2005, updated 2014)
Previously known as National Fund for Energy Management, this fund gives financial support to both energy efficiency and renewable energy measures. The fund has been successful in granting access to finance for small private investors.
Law 2005-82 establishing the National Fund for Energy Management available in pdf format (in French): Tunisia_Law 2005-82 (2005)
Tunisian Solar Plan (PST) (2009, redeveloped 2012)
The Tunisian Solar Plan represents the key programme of Tunisia to reduce GHG emissions in the energy sector. It sets various targets for different types of RE sources and for energy efficiency. According to the plan the share of RES in the energy mix should reach 20 percent by 2020 and 30 percent by 2030, the latter consisting of 15 percent of wind, 10 percent of solar PV, and 5 percent of CSP. For energy efficiency, the PST sets an annual reduction in energy intensity of two percent between 2013 and 2030.
To meet the targets outlined in the PST, a number of supporting schemes have been put in place. A net metering system for small-scale grid connected RE projects was approved through decree n. 2009-2773 (2009); it is recognized that the measure has been highly successful due to its smartly designed features. Among other measures, a feed-in tariff scheme, a system regulating auto production, and the possibility to sign long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs) have been also introduced.
Document available in pdf format (in French): Tunisia_Tunisian Solar Plan (2012)
Prosol Programme (2005, updated 2009)
The Programme, launched by state agency ANME (National Agency for Energy Conservation), sets out incentives for residential solar water heaters (SWH), which are given in form of a subsidy on the purchase of a SWH and a credit repayable in 5 years. Due to its success, the programme was followed up in 2007 with a special programme for commercial SWH targeting the tertiary sector. Based on the previous experiences, in 2009 ANME also started the Prosol Elec programme to spur the diffusion of distributed solar PV, a measure working in accordance with the PST (see above). As for the previous versions, regulatory and fiscal instruments are complemented with a commercial loan.
More information available on STEG website (in French) and Tunisia country profile from the IEA (see below)
Law No. 2004-72 on Energy Efficiency (2004, amended 2009)
The law provides a regulatory framework for measures promoting energy savings and renewable energy deployment. It encourages the use of renewable energy sources like wind, solar, geothermal and small hydro and creates ANME as the body responsible for RE- and EE-related activities. Incentives to EE improvements are offered through a variety of regulatory, fiscal and financial instruments. Most importantly, through the amendment enacted by Law 2009-7 the law authorises private energy producers to sell their RE electricity to state agency STEG through a PPA and use the national grid to transport electricity.
Document available in pdf format (in French): Tunisia_Law 2009-7 (2009)
National Forest Strategy (2015)
Tunisia’s new forest strategy, covering the 2015-2014 time span, seeks to promote a sustainable development of the forestry sector in the country. An Action Plan that is set out by the strategy relies on a public-private partnership. The four axes underpinning the strategy are: adaptation of the institutional and legal framework and capacity building; optimisation of forestry contribution to socio-economic development; maintenance and improvement of environmental services of forest resources; consolidation and improvement of forestry and pastoral resources.
More information available in pdf format on the strategy infographic (in French): Tunisia_National Forest Strategy (2015)
National Strategy on Waste Management 2006-2016 (2006)
The strategy, developed by the National Agency of Waste Management (ANGed), defines four main objectives, that are: reduction of waste amounts; promotion of waste treatment and disposal; improvement of the institutional, regulatory and financial management of waste; strengthening of communication, policy dialogue, and advocacy activities.
Document available in pdf format (in French): Tunisia_National Waste Management Strategy (2006)
Tunisia profile at the IEA
Tunisia’s Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development webpage
RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Renewable Energy (pdf)
RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Energy Efficiency (pdf)
- Party to the UNFCCC (Non-Annex I):
Date of signature: 13 June 1992
Date of ratification: 15 July 1993
Date of entry into force: 21 March 1994
- Member of the Kyoto Protocol:
Date of signature: n/a
Date of ratification: 22 January 2003
Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005
- Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord
Tunisia has benefitted by numerous cooperation projects with the European Union, mostly under the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) that was put in place in 2007. Cooperation has resulted in both disbursement of funds for Tunisian energy projects and provision of expertise for the writing of strategies, programmes and research studies. Bilateral projects involved mainly the European Commission but cooperation with individual countries is not uncommon, most notably with Germany, Italy and France. European support contributed to the energy efficiency improvements that the country witnessed since the turn of the century.
On a regional level it is possible to observe a number of multilateral initiatives, the most prominent being the Mediterranean Solar Plan, which started in 2008 with the purpose of developing large-scale RE project in the states of the Southern Mediterranean. The project produced numerous pieces of research but had few practical results so far. Various other programmes, mostly targeting the Mediterranean area, aim to harmonise policies and regulations to facilitate energy trade and investments in the region.
Tunisia showed the intention to seriously deal with climate issues by referring explicitly to climate change in its new Constitution (see National Policy section). In international negotiations, as a part of the League of Arab States and OAPEC, it generally follows their positions.