Geopolitical Informations

22.85 million (2013)
Total area
185,180 km2

Latest News

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec. 19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS read more...

Macron’s climate finance rally to accelerate global response to climate change

On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

FOCUS: Carbon Markets within and beyond the Paris deal

One of the key themes under discussion at COP23 was Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which will allow Parties to voluntarily undertake cooperative read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 54.89 4.41
1991 59.13 4.61
1992 60.28 4.57
1993 61.58 4.54
1994 64.50 4.63
1995 68.06 4.75
1996 70.62 4.79
1997 72.23 4.76
1998 76.37 4.90
1999 75.75 4.74
2000 75.86 4.63
2001 75.76 4.54
2002 77.99 4.59
2003 77.69 4.49
2004 81.09 4.59
2005 90.51 4.98
2006 93.90 4.99
2007 97.82 5.00
2008 99.38 4.88
2009 94.38 4.49
2010 95.13 4.42
2011 88.84 4.05

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.



Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 0 2,694
Oil 20197,241 13730,419
Natural gas 7242,947 7801,966
Nuclear 0 0
Hydro 222,912 222,912
Geothermal 0 0
Solar thermal 0 0
Solar photovoltaics 0 0
Tide, wave, ocean 0 0
Wind 0 0
Biomass 6,424 6,424
Biofuels 0 0
Waste 0 0

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.


National Policy


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International Policy

General features


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Negotiating position


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