Geopolitical Informations

46.65 million (2013)
Total area
504,645 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Cortes Generales (bicameral Parliament)

Latest News

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Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

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On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

FOCUS: Carbon Markets within and beyond the Paris deal

One of the key themes under discussion at COP23 was Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which will allow Parties to voluntarily undertake cooperative read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 277.96 7.15 302.61
1991 284.98 7.32 302.55
1992 297.12 7.61 312.53
1993 282.73 7.21 300.49
1994 294.42 7.49 305.64
1995 308.74 7.84 311.9
1996 300.41 7.61 296.23
1997 322.58 8.15 306.21
1998 335.92 8.46 305.23
1999 359.6 9.01 311.99
2000 378.89 9.41 312.93
2001 380.22 9.33 302.91
2002 395.91 9.56 307.08
2003 403.58 9.57 303.65
2004 420.11 9.79 306.11
2005 433.21 9.92 304.73
2006 427.86 9.64 289.18
2007 440.44 9.74 287.68
2008 407.95 8.88 264.1
2009 367.45 7.93 247.37
2010 350.27 7.52 236.27
2011 351.59 7.52 237.04

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.



Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 2292,982 11920,467
Oil 100,885 56009,15
Natural gas 45,451 28927,732
Nuclear 15023,679 15023,679
Hydro 2630,998 2630,998
Geothermal 17,026 17,026
Solar thermal 200,568 200,568
Solar photovoltaics 707,952 707,952
Tide, wave, ocean 0 0
Wind 3644,164 3644,164
Biomass 5020,077 5020,077
Biofuels 1090,139 1972,159
Waste 348,074 348,074

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.


National Policy


The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, MAGRAMA) has appointed since 2001 the Spanish Office for Climate Change (Oficina Española de Cambio Climático) as directive body to develop policies related to climate change.

In 2005, the Coordination Commission on Climate Change Policy (Comisión de Coordinación de Políticas de Cambio Climático, CCPCC) was created, as appointed body for coordination and collaboration between the General State Administration and the Autonomous Communities for implementing the system of emission trading and compliance with international and EU reporting obligations inherent in it. Currently the areas of coordination between the two levels of government have been extended to all aspects of mitigation and adaptation to climate change.

On March, 14th 2014, Spain approves the Royal Decree 163/2014, as a transposition of the Decision 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the effort sharing to reduce European Union emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020, according to which Spain must reduce its GHG emissions by 10% compared to 2005 levels. Full EU decision available here, or download in pdf: EU-Decision-406-2009-EC-effort-of-Member-States-to-reduce-GHG-emissions-up to 2020; Full Royal Decree 163/2014 available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Real-Decreto-163-2014

Sustainable Economy Act (2011)

The Sustainable Economy Act (ley 2/2011, de 4 de Marzo, de Economía Sostenible) encompasses a wide range of initiatives and measures aiming at a shift to a sustainable economy, including energy efficiency, sustainable transport or renewable energies. Full document available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Ley-2-2011-de-Economía-Sostenible

Spanish Strategy on Climate Change and Clean Energy (2007)

In 2007 Spain adopted the Spanish Strategy on Climate Change and Clean Energy 2007-2012-2020 ( Estrategia Española de Cambio Climático y Energía Limpia), addressing different measures that contribute to sustainable development in the field of climate change and clean energy. A series of policies and measures to mitigate climate change are presented, to make compliance with the commitments undertaken by Spain, focusing on the achievement of the Kyoto Protocol’s objectives. Full document available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Estrategia-Española-de-Cambio-Climático-y-Energía-Limpia-2007

The Strategy is complemented by the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) 2011–2020 and the Renewable Energy Action Plan (see below).

National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change (2006)

The National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change (Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático, PNACC) is a framework for coordination among government activities in assessing impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Spain. The Plan was approved, together with the First Work Programme in July 2006 by the Policy Coordination Committee on Climate Change and the National Climate Council. Full document available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Plan-Nacional-de-Adaptación-al-Cambio-Climático-2006


Law 1/2005 on the regulation of emission permits trading scheme (2005)

The most relevant provisions at the national level are contained in Law 1/2005 of 9 March, approving the trading of emissions permits. It contains the creation of a Designated National Authority as an interministerial commission in which the CCAA (Comunidades Autonomas) have a representative who serves as the designated national authority and define their duties, including the issuance of letters of approval of CDM projects. Full document available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Ley-1-2005-por-la-que-se-regula-el-régimen-del-comercio-de-derechos-de-emisión-de-gases-de-efecto-invernadero

The Royal Decree 1264/2005 of 21 October establishes the organization and functioning of the National Registry of Emissions Allowances. Full document available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Real-Decreto-1264-2005-por-el-que-se-regula-la-organización-y-funcionamiento-del-Registro-nacional-de-derechos-de-emisión


National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2011)

The NEEAP 2011–2020 was approved in 2011 and constitutes a continuation of previously approved plans as part of the Saving and Energy Efficiency Strategy 2004– 2012. The Plan presents targets and measures that include investment incentives, promotion, training, dissemination and legislative actions.
The Plan  2011–2020 intends to achieve energy savings in industry of 4 489 ktoe. To meet this target, it includes the introduction of energy audits, improved equipment and process technology, as well as implementation of energy management systems. Full document available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Energy-Efficiency-Action-Plan-2011-2020

Renewable Energy Action Plan (2011)

The Renewable Energy Action Plan 2011–2020 aims to promote a total investment of more than EUR 62 million, of which more than EUR 55 million is earmarked for electricity-generating installations and more than EUR 6 million for facilities for thermal use. Most support is planned for wind and hydropower, but photovoltaics, thermal electric installations and biomass are also planned to be supported. Full document available in pdf: Spain-National-Renewable-Energy-Action-Plan-2011-2020

Support for renewable electricity in Span has taken a sharp turn from 2012 onwards. According to the European Environment Agency, “Access to the feed-in support scheme as well as the premium tariff was blocked in January 2012; Royal Decree Law 2/2013 suspended remuneration schemes for existing installations, which severely affected the economics of those projects and, finally, Royal Decree Law 9/2013 phased out both renewable electricity support schemes. These measures were taken as the support schemes were considered to be one of the main reasons for the failing cost coverage in the electricity system, causing the so-called tariff deficit. Law 24/2013 introduced a new ‘specific remuneration system’, which pays a supplementary compensation on the market price. It was implemented to allow renewable energy producers to recover costs and a suitable return that cannot be recovered by selling the electricity on the market” (source: EEA, Country profile-Spain, 2014)


Strategic Infrastructure and Transport Plan

The Strategic Infrastructure and Transport Plan defines basic guidelines for action in infrastructure and transport for 2005–2020, including the promotion of intermodal transport and public transport. The Plan aims to shift personal and freight transport to rail. In 2014, Royal Decree 128/2014 initiated the third round of the Plan of Support to the Environment (PIMA 3), promoting the purchase of efficient and/or hybrid vans, cars and motorcycles as well as bicycles with assisted pedalling.


Socioeconomic Plan of Forest Activation (2014)

The Plan is active at the national level and is closely tied to the programming of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). The Fund runs for 7 years and finances a variety of measures with priority given to the ones that are aimed at improving environmental conservation and climate change mitigation. The Fund intends to tackle the latter by exploiting the CO2- capturing capabilities of forests and by increasing the use of biomass as a fuel. In parallel, the Plan aims to diversify the economic activity of rural communities and improve the quality of life of their inhabitants. Executive summary available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Plan-Forest-Activation-Executive-2014_summary

Agriculture and Fisheries Action Plan 2011–2020

The Agriculture and Fisheries Action Plan 2011–2020 aims to realise energy savings in this sector by applying measures based on economic incentives and training, such as promotion and training techniques for efficient use of energy, improving energy efficiency and boosting irrigation facilities for migrating sprinkler systems to drip irrigation systems, as well as energy audits and support of sustainable agriculture. It is included into the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2011-2020 (see above).


Programa Estatal de Prevención de Residuos (2013)

The National Programme on Waste Prevention 2014-2020 was approved in 2013, with the main goal of reducing waste by 10 percent by 2020. Full document available here, or download in pdf: Spain-Programa_de_prevencion_de-residuos-2014-2020

Integrated National Waste Plan (2008)

The National Plan of Integrated Waste 2008- 2015 (PNIR) was launched in 2008. It aims at integrating the European core principles and encourages the parties involved to consolidate an integrated form of management, which combines effectively the guiding principles governing EU waste policy and achieves a significant change towards a more sustainable waste management in Spain. The cornerstone of this Plan is a limit to the amount of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills.


Main sources

Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, MAGRAMA)

Spanish Office for Climate Change (Oficina Española de Cambio Climático)

Spanish Coordination Commission on Climate Change Policy (Comisión de Coordinación de Políticas de Cambio Climático, CCPCC)

European Environment Agency, Climate and energy profiles 2014

International Policy

General features

Party to the UNFCCC:

  • date of signature: 13 June 1992
  • date of ratification: 21 December 1993
  • date of entry into force: 21 March 1994

Member of Kyoto protocol:

  • date of signature: 29 April 1998
  • date of ratification: 31 May 2002
  • date of entry into force: 16 February 2005

A significant Spain’s feature in cooperation on climate change is the participation in the Latin American Network of Climate Change Offices (Red Iberoamericana de Oficinas de Cambio Climático, RIOCC). The RIOCC  was created in 2004. Among its activities it has established the Latin American Program on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change (Programa Iberoamericano de Impactos, Vulnerabilidad y Adaptación al Cambio Climático, PIACC), which aims to strengthen the development and implementation of adaptation strategies in the Latin American region and facilitate the assessment of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation options to climate change.

Through the created Carbon Fund (Fondo de Carbono), the Spanish government aims to encourage those companies and projects that promote the reduction of CO2, in order to obtain a reduction of 15% their emissions relative to 1990.

On October 10th 2005, Spain signed with the Andean Development Corporation (CAF) an agreement for the implementation of the Latin American Carbon Initiative (IIC), which allow acquisition of 9 Mt CO2 eq.

On September 15th, 2006, it was approved the contribution of Spain, with 35 million euros, to the Multilateral Carbon Credit Fund (MCCF), promoted and managed by the European Investment Bank (EIB) and European Bank for reconstruction and Development (EBRD).

On November 24th 2006 the Council of Ministers agreed to the participation of Spain in the Asia Pacific Carbon Fund, of the Asian Development Bank, with a contribution from the Ministry of Economy and Finance of $ 30 million. Following the closing of the first section of the Bio carbon Fund managed by the World Bank, Spain will participate in a second section with a commitment to contribution of U.S. $ 5,200,000 between 2007 and 2008 (Source: Spain-Estrategia-Española-de-Cambio-Climático-y-Energía-Limpia-2007)

Main sources

Spain’s Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, MAGRAMA)



Negotiating position

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