Geopolitical Informations

30.38 million (2013)
Total area
1,285,216 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Congress of the Republic of Peru (unicameral)

Latest News

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Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 50,62 2,33 521,42
1991 49,81 2,24 502,20
1992 49,72 2,20 503,41
1993 51,76 2,24 500,24
1994 53,01 2,25 454,11
1995 55,31 2,31 436,25
1996 57,16 2,35 439,81
1997 57,32 2,31 412,64
1998 59,40 2,36 430,46
1999 62,02 2,42 445,39
2000 62,43 2,40 435,49
2001 60,08 2,28 418,23
2002 59,85 2,24 396,66
2003 58,55 2,16 373,01
2004 62,38 2,28 378,59
2005 64,20 2,32 364,74
2006 62,76 2,24 330,92
2007 65,93 2,33 319,21
2008 70,32 2,46 310,09
2009 70,55 2,44 308,43
2010 79,73 2,72 320,51

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.



Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 64,401 813,118
Oil 6908,049 8217,59
Natural gas 7623,578 5494,649
Nuclear 0 0
Hydro 1723,01 1723,01
Geothermal 0 0
Solar thermal 5,707 5,707
Solar photovoltaics 0 0
Tide, wave, ocean 0 0
Wind 0,086 0,086
Biomass 3041,739 3041,739
Biofuels 31,356 111,579
Waste 0 0

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.


National Policy

The Ministry of Environment (MINAM, Ministerio del Ambiente) is the national environmental authority and focal point of the UNFCCC. The MINAM has a General Directorate of Climate Change, Desertification and Water Resources (Dirección General de Cambio Climático, Desertificación y Recursos Hídricos -DGCCDRH). In the water and agriculture sectors, the governing bodies are the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG) and the National Water Authority (ANA). MINAM is the Designated National Authority of the Clean Development Mechanisms in Peru.

Peru’s National Environmental Policy of 2009 (Supreme Decree 012-2009-MINAM) includes among its objectives:
• to encourage the implementation of measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change with a preventive approach.
• to establish monitoring systems, early warning and timely response to disasters associated with climate change.
The National Plan of Environmental Action 2011-2021 (Plan Nacional de Acción Ambiental 2011-2021, –pdf) contains priority goals including specific strategic actions, incorporating the following commitments towards a national low-carbon economy:

  •  Reducing LULUCF emissions, to achieve an emission reduction of 45% compared with that of 2000, with potential avoided emissions of up to 50 Mt CO2 eq;
  • Using renewable energies to provide at least 40% of the total energy mix, with the aim of a total emission reduction of 28% compared with that of 2000, with potential avoided emissions of up to 7 Mt CO2 eq;
  • Capturing and using CH4 from urban solid waste: a national program to achieve an emission reduction of 7 Mt CO2 eq

On mitigation and reduction of greenhouse gases, Peru government has encouraged the production and use of renewable energy through the adoption of several laws, including:

  • the approval of the Energy Policy 2010-2040, in which it is established as one of its objectives “to have a minimum impact of the energy sector and low-carbon emissions”;
  • the Decree of Investment Promotion for Electricity Generation with the Use of Renewable Energy (Supreme Decree No. 1002 –pdf– );
  • the Regulation on generation of electricity from renewable energy sources.

Additionally, it has adopted the National Forest Conservation Program for Climate Change Mitigation (Supreme Decree 008-2010), initiated by the MINAM in order to preserve about 80% of the country’s forest cover.

Peru has a National Strategy on Climate Change (ENCC – pdf- ) (Supreme Decree No. 086-2003-PCM) having eleven strategic lines of action and includes actions such as reducing the adverse impacts of climate change, which will identify areas and/or vulnerable sectors in the country, where adaptation projects will be implemented. The strategy is being updated by the MINAM and the National Climate Change Committee (NCCC).

In the agriculture sector, the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG) has approved its “National Plan for Risk Management and Adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change in the Agricultural Sector for the period 2012 – 2021“, with the support of FAO.


Main souces:

MINAM Ministerio del Ambiente, Peru




International Policy

General features

Peru has presented two National communications to the UNFCCC, the last one in September 2010 [pdf]

In 2011, Peru submitted to the UNFCCC a list of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), including the achievement a 33% percent of renewable energy out of the total by 2020 [pdf].

Under the Global Enviromental Facility, Peru is part to several national, regional and international projects on climate change.


Negotiating position


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