Geopolitical Informations

4.467 million (2013)
Total area
10,452 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Parliament of Lebanon (unicameral)

Latest News

France advances phase out of hydrocarbons production by 2040

French Minister of Ecological and Social Transition Nicolas Hulot on Wednesday (Sept. 6) presented a draft bill  to phase out oil and gas exploration and production on French territories by 2040. The bill, presented to France’s Council of Ministers, is the first step to keep the campaign promises of Emmanuel Macron and was anticipated in read more…

French government to step up efforts on climate policy and green economy

In the country of origin of the Paris Agreement, the new government aims to take the assignment of the treaty seriously: a set of policies have been announced to put France at the forefront of climate action and to convert the country into the number one green economy. This greatly contrasts with recent developments in read more…

Pioneering law against food waste passed in France

On Wednesday (Feb. 3rd), the French Senate definitively passed a law including a series of measures against food waste. The regulation, unanimously approved by both the National Assembly (last May) and the Senate, obliges supermarkets to donate unsold food rather than destroying or throwing it away. Overall, the law sets a four-step hierarchy of actions read more…

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 8.09 2.99 364.95
1991 9.55 3.47 311.48
1992 9.89 3.5 308.79
1993 13.92 4.8 406.22
1994 15.2 5.11 410.61
1995 16.96 5.59 430.24
1996 17.7 5.76 426.99
1997 19.28 6.23 475.98
1998 19.41 6.23 462.55
1999 20.02 6.34 479.37
2000 18.5 5.72 436.94
2001 19.75 5.88 448.76
2002 19.7 5.6 433.08
2003 20.11 5.45 428.26
2004 20.52 5.33 406.59
2005 19.86 4.98 389.5
2006 18.48 4.53 360.29
2007 17.22 4.16 312.27
2008 21.26 5.08 352.97
2009 25.18 5.93 385.14
2010 24.4 5.62 348.83
2011 22.04 5.03 305.94

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 0 165,252
Oil 0 6749,802
Natural gas 0 212,042
Nuclear 0 0
Hydro 86,602 86,602
Geothermal 0 0
Solar thermal 20,035 20,035
Solar photovoltaics 0 0
Tide, wave, ocean 0 0
Wind 0 0
Biomass 119,328 119,328
Biofuels 0 6,621
Waste 0 0

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (2011)

Lebanon government adopted the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan in November 2011 becoming the first Arab country to do so. The plan includes a reduction of energy consumption, the target of a 12% use of renewable energy sources by 2020 and the adoption of a law on energy conservation.

National Environmental Action Plan (2009)

The National Environmental Action Plan is a planning tool that defines Lebanon’s environmental priorities and key entry points for mitigating environmental pollution and degradation. The NEAP is a roadmap for environmental programming and activities. The mandate of the MOE was amended by Law 690/2005 and the long-awaited restructuring of the ministry was enacted four years later by Decree 2275 (dated 15/06/2009). This decree defines the function and responsibilities of each unit including staff size and qualifications. The work plan is a prelude to updating the National Environmental Action Plan which was prepared in 2005-2006 but was never officially endorsed The work plan comprises 10 themes and requires intimate coordination with relevant ministries, and public and private sector groups:
• Strengthening environmental inspection and enforcement (in partnership with the MOJ, MOIM and the MOF);
• adapting to the impacts of climate change on natural resources (in partnership with the MOEW, the MOA, the MOPWT and the MOI);
• managing air pollution (in partnership with the MOPWT, the MOEW, the MOI and the MOF);
• sustainable management of land and soil (in partnership with the MOPWT the MOIM, the MOND, the MOEW, and the MOA);
• preserving and promoting Lebanon’s ecosystem capital (in partnership with the Ministry of Information, the MOA, the MOT, the MOC, the MOTC, the MOFAE, the MOIM, and the MOF);
• promotion of hazardous and non-hazardous waste management (in partnership with the CDR, the MOIM, the MOF, the MOPWT, and the MOA;
• promoting environmentally-friendly products (in partnership with the MOA, the MOI and the MOET);
• promoting eco-job opportunities (in partnership with the MOEHE, the Civil Service Board, the NCSR, the MOYS and the academic sector);
• striving to improve the work environment in order to protect environmental health (in partnership with the MOL, the MOPH, and the MOSA);
• strengthening the role of the Ministry of Environment (in partnership with the OMSAR and the Civil Service Board).


Environment Law 444/2002

Approved by parliament in 2002, the law is an overarching legal instrument for environmental protection and management. It has defined 11 environmental principles:
• precaution (cleaner production techniques);
• prevention (best available technologies);
• polluter-Pays-Principle (polluters pay for pollution prevention and control);
• biodiversity conservation (in all economic activities);
• prevention of natural resources degradation;
• public participation (free access to information and disclosure);
• cooperation between central government, local authorities, and citizens;
• recognition of local mores and customs in rural areas;
• environmental monitoring (pollution sources and pollution abatement systems);
• economic incentives to encourage compliance and pollution control;
• EIA process to control and mitigate environmental degradation.

In total, Law 444/2002 needs 36 application decrees to achieve full implementation.

Decision 8/1 (2001)

Dated 30th January 2001, it defines environmental limit values for stack emissions and effluent discharge from classified establishments, wastewater treatment plants, and hospitals. The decision disaggregates stack emission limit values by industrial sector (e.g., power plants and generators, cement, glass, aluminum, batteries, agro-foods, and incineration) and for new and existing industries.


Decree 2366/2009

Approved the National Land Use Master Plan that was prepared in 2002-2004. This master plan is Lebanon’s first attempt to unify and organize land use holistically and while respecting basic premises including decentralization, economic growth, and environmental protection.


Laws on Waste Management: 

In Lebanon, Solid Waste Management (SWM) plans depends on the stakeholder:
• Municipal Solid Waste Management Strategy for Lebanon prepared by the Ministry of Environment (MoE) in 2002;
• Waste Management Plan prepared by the CDR in 2005;
• The National Integrated Strategy for SWM in the country presented by the MoE to the Council of Ministers (CoM) in 2010.
Actually there is no specific legislative framework dealing directly with SWM.
Two decrees address the sector specifically:
• Decree 8735 of 1974 assigning SWM as a municipal responsibility;
• Decree 9093 of 2002 providing municipalities with an incentive to host a WM facility.
Furthermore, a Draft Law on Integrated Solid Waste Management under the METAP program is still under review.


Laws on Transport

A long list of laws and decrees are present to regulate the transport system and traffic in Lebanon. However, none of these laws include real environmental specifications.
The first real regulatory framework of lebanese transport sector refers to the Program of the Ministry of Environment in Lebanon for 2010-2012 which aims to fight air pollution reviewing, among others previsions, the specifications and standards for air pollutants (Minister decision 52/1-1996 and 8/1 – 2001).


Official sources on Lebanon’s Climate and Energy policies: 

Government of Lebanon website

Lebanon’s Minister of Environment website


International Policy

General features

As full voting member in the United Nations General Assembly since 1945, Lebanon has acceded to and ratified several conventions and treaties related to the environment.

It ratified the UNFCCC by law number 359/1994. No requirement to decrease national GHG emissions derived from the Convention and Lebanon has voluntarily committed to increase RES to 12% by 2020 after having agreed to the Copenhagen Accord.


Party to the UNFCCC (Annex II)
Date of signature: 12 June 1992
Date of ratification: 15 December 1994
Date of entry into force: 15 March 1995

Party to the Kyoto Protocol
Date of signature: X
Date of ratification: 13 November 2006
Date of entry into force: 11 February 2007


Official sources: 

Lebanon’s Ministry of the Environment website

United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) website

Negotiating position

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