Geopolitical Informations

5.720 million (2013)
Total area
199,951 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Supreme Council (Unicameral Parliament)

Latest News

IN DEPTH: A tangled case – Turkey’s status under UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement

Despite joining the position of all G20 members except of the US to designate the Paris Agreement as “irreversible”, shortly after the summit in read more...

IMO takes a step forward to tackle GHG emissions from the shipping sector

The meeting of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) ended on Friday (July 7) in London.  According to IMO’s read more...

Paris deal is “irreversible” for G20 leaders, except for US

At the G20 summit in Hamburg, Germany, leaders of the 20 major economies have expressed their commitment to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and to read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 29.88 6.8 1958.13
1991 26.85 6.02 1910.01
1992 19.15 4.24 1581.78
1993 14.81 3.28 1447.12
1994 10.58 2.34 1293.98
1995 8.01 1.76 1035.79
1996 9.12 1.97 1101.02
1997 8.99 1.91 986.95
1998 9.26 1.94 996.18
1999 7.95 1.64 825.08
2000 7.78 1.59 765.83
2001 7.12 1.44 664.91
2002 8.12 1.63 759.23
2003 8.77 1.74 765.44
2004 8.78 1.72 716.31
2005 8.56 1.66 699.6
2006 8.5 1.63 673.62
2007 9.21 1.75 672.32
2008 9.98 1.88 672.1
2009 8.92 1.66 584.18
2010 10.07 1.85 662.28
2011 10.22 1.85 634.6

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 421,756 1044,732
Oil 79,394 1650,188
Natural gas 24,327 356,39
Hydro 1219,394 1219,394
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Biomass 3,821 3,821

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

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International Policy

General features

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Negotiating position

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