Geopolitical Informations

44.35 million (2013)
Total area
581,309 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Bicameral Parliament

Latest News

FOCUS AFRICA – Climate and energy policy in Kenya: a leading solar market, yet without a grid

Considered as one of the fastest-growing African states, Kenya is indeed experiencing a sharp increase in terms of both population and economy size. Currently inhabited by 86 million people, the country saw its population more than doubling during the last thirty years. The population growth rate proved relatively stable at 2.6 percent in 2015, after read more…

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Macron’s climate finance rally to accelerate global response to climate change

On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 34.44 1.47 745.87
1991 34 1.4 725.83
1992 33.86 1.35 728.6
1993 33.55 1.3 719.44
1994 33.3 1.25 695.79
1995 33.62 1.23 672.73
1996 34.17 1.21 656.66
1997 33.75 1.17 645.5
1998 34.22 1.15 633.5
1999 34.5 1.13 624.3
2000 35.16 1.12 632.56
2001 35.35 1.1 612.87
2002 35.97 1.09 620.1
2003 35.87 1.06 600.82
2004 37.63 1.08 599.61
2005 39.39 1.1 592.76
2006 41.14 1.12 582.21
2007 41.91 1.11 554.28
2008 43.14 1.11 562.04
2009 45.85 1.15 581.41
2010 47.47 1.16 569.19
2011 46.26 1.1 531.4

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 211,364
Oil 3432,604
Natural gas
Hydro 369,714 369,714
Geothermal 1374,628 1374,628
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics 0,086 0,086
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 1,29 1,29
Biomass 15148,565 15148,565

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

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International Policy

General features

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Negotiating position

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