Geopolitical Informations

17.04 million (2013)
Total area
2,724,900 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Bicameral Parliament

Latest News

Kazakhstan ETS to be suspended until 2018

Kazakhstan Vice Energy Minister, Asset Magauov, announced that Kazakhstan will suspend its ETS, until 2018, Carbon Pulse reported on February 26. The ETS scheme was introduced in the country in 2013, and in 2016 it should have entered its third phase. It involves 140 big companies in the energy sector (including oil and gas), mining read more…

Kazakh exchange and EEX agree to support one-year-old emission market

The European Energy Exchange and Kazakh exchange Caspi JSC signed an agreement to bolster exchange-based trading of carbon permits, supporting Kazakhstan’s emissions market, Reuters reported on Wednesday (May, 28). Caspi JSC is the official exchange platform for trading and auctioning allowances in Kazakhstan. The units, called KZQs, correspond to a tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent read more…

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 349.36 21.37 1678.91
1991 348.34 21.18 1880.94
1992 347.29 21.13 1980.21
1993 299.23 18.32 1879.04
1994 261.59 16.25 1879.53
1995 228.99 14.48 1792.26
1996 203.91 13.09 1588.02
1997 178.47 11.64 1366.66
1998 178.41 11.84 1392.64
1999 163.8 10.97 1245.01
2000 159.94 10.75 1107.13
2001 158.54 10.67 966.93
2002 170.22 11.46 945.51
2003 187.47 12.57 952.72
2004 200.14 13.33 928.02
2005 213.28 14.08 901.49
2006 232.31 15.18 887.02
2007 248.93 16.08 872.79
2008 291.08 18.57 987.98
2009 264.08 16.41 885.7
2010 300.83 18.43 940.33
2011 302.81 18.29 880.47

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 52763,108 37855,792
Oil 82608,012 12857,583
Natural gas 28550,196 23309,451
Hydro 656,782 656,782
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 0,258 0,258
Biomass 59,461 59,461

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

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International Policy

General features

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Negotiating position

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