Jordan

Jordan

Geopolitical Informations

Capital
Amman
Population
6.460 million (2013)
Total area
89,342 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Parliament (Bicameral)

Latest News

The road towards COP21: an overview of INDCs from the MENA region

On September 16th Tunisia was the fourth country of the MENA region to submit its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) in view of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP21) to be held in Paris this December. Morocco has been the first country of the region to contribute submitting its INDC in June, followed by read more…

Renewable energy deployment in the MENA: a regional overview

The MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region is characterised by a large availability of fossil fuel reserves, albeit unevenly distributed among the countries, and a high potential of renewable energy (RE) use, especially solar power. Although countries present large differences in terms of economic status, political conditions and resource availability, a shift towards clean read more…

SPECIAL COP23: the Bula spirit makes progress on Paris Agreement implementation

The 23rd session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties concluded its works on the early morning of Saturday 18th November, after that delegates read more...

Climate Policy Facts

Emissions

Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 17.4 5.49 777.67
1991 17.39 4.9 763.18
1992 19.91 5.33 736.35
1993 20.41 5.23 721.73
1994 21.48 5.29 723.5
1995 22.13 5.27 701.76
1996 21.57 4.99 670.18
1997 21.07 4.73 633.78
1998 20.3 4.42 592.87
1999 19.38 4.14 547.33
2000 19.07 3.98 516.65
2001 19.32 3.93 497.17
2002 20.48 4.07 498.2
2003 20.38 3.95 475.93
2004 22.54 4.26 484.96
2005 23.98 4.43 477.13
2006 24.57 4.44 452.05
2007 25.69 4.54 436.86
2008 25.32 4.38 401.6
2009 26.05 4.4 391.69
2010 25.82 4.27 379.48
2011 24.97 4.04 357.72

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.

Energy

Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal
Oil 1,02 6754,626
Natural gas 120,838 658,754
Nuclear
Hydro 5,246 5,246
Geothermal
Solar thermal 140,008 140,008
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 0,258 0,258
Biomass 3,128 3,128
Biofuels 1,719 3,19
Waste

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

Jordan is among the countries that are going to be most affected by climate change, particularly in relation to the already scarce water resources. Water availability is seen a necessary factor for the country’s future development. Jordan sees itself as a forerunner in contrasting climate change, as can be observed from the fact that it has been the first non-Annex I country submitting a UNFCCC report. Being a net energy importer, Jordan gives particular emphasis to using energy in a rational and efficient manner and deploying non-fossil energy sources. Diversification of the energy mix and reduction of oil imports dependency are key features of the national energy strategy. The country has developed a favourable policy framework encouraging investments in low-carbon projects, one of the most advanced in the MENA region.

 

Climate Change

National Climate Change Policy for 2013-2020 (2013)

This document has great significance for climate policy in the region as it represents the first comprehensive climate strategy drafted by a Middle East country. The Policy’s long-term goal is to make Jordan a country resilient to climate risks, characterised by a low-carbon but growing economy, with sustainable use of water and agricultural resources paving the way to sustainable development. With this in mind, the objectives of the Policy are to develop the adaptive capacity of communities and institutions, enhancing ecosystem resilience with particular focus on water and agriculture, and to promote both mitigation and adaptation measures, with more emphasis on the latter, due to the country’s relatively low-carbon economy.

Document available in pdf format: Jordan_National Climate Change Policy 2013-2020 (2013)

 

Adaptation

A vulnerability assessment included in the Third National Communication to the UNFCCC investigates the country’s adaptation capacity to climate change. The analysis covers seven sectors (water, agriculture, biodiversity, coastal areas, urban areas, health, local communities), assessing each sector’s vulnerability and resilience capacity, and providing policy recommendations.

Adaptation is largely addressed in the National Climate Change Policy for 2013-2020 (see above), which includes a summary of existing or planned adaptation strategies, action plans and provisions and envisions the drafting of a National Adaptation Action Plan.

 

Energy

Subsidy Removal Programme (2013)

The subsidy removal plan aims to eliminate or reduce subsidisation to electricity and oil products, a typical feature of MENA countries that is undergoing extensive reforms in the recent years. Energy subsidies are meant to help the poorer strata of the population but, especially in Jordan, resulted in large benefits for the richest. Regarding energy prices, the reform targets the industry, tourism and banking sectors with annual tariff increases of 15 percent until 2017. Subsidies to oil products have been entirely removed and their prices aligned to international market trends.

More information available on RCREEE’s report AFEX 2015: Energy Efficiency (see below) and in IMF’s report Subsidy Reform in the MENA (in pdf format): IMF_Subsidy reform in the MENA (2014)

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) (2013)

The Jordanian NEEAP covers the period 2013-2015 and is a result of the Arab Electrical Energy Efficiency Guidelines put in place since 2010. To achieve the 20 percent decrease target in electricity consumption by 2020 defined in the Master Strategy of the Energy Sector (see below), the NEEAP implements 25 measures in various economic sectors. The plan includes six sectoral targets (residential, industry, commercial, water pumping, street lighting, development and free zones), and additional measures targeting among others the public and the power sector.

Document available in pdf format: Jordan_NEEAP (2013)

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Law No. 13 (2010, updated 2012)

The law complements the General Electricity Law No. 64 (see below) providing a legal framework for RE generation and supply-side energy efficiency actions. Focus of the law is on increasing investments in RE projects and pursuing efficient energy extraction.

Among the numerous provisions defined the law, some worth mentioning are allocating land for RE projects, establishing competitive bidding processes for projects on such land, allowing independent power producers (IPPs) to generate and sell RE electricity, ensuring the purchase of RE electricity by the state-owned utility, introducing a net metering scheme for small-scale RE producers, ensuring grid priority access to RE generators, defining grid codes for RE production of all sizes, launching a fund for RE and EE projects (JREEEF fund).

Document available in pdf format: Jordan_Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Law No. 13 (2012)

Master Strategy of the Energy Sector (2004, updated 2007)

The document outlines the national energy strategy for the period 2005-2020. In the 2007 update several renewable energy targets have been included. The updated strategy’s main goals are diversifying the energy mix, increasing the share of local resources in energy use, reducing oil imports dependency, enhancing environment protection. To contribute to the achievement of these goals, it sets a renewables share target in the total energy mix of 7 percent by 2015 and 10 percent by 2020, to be met with wind, solar and energy from waste. In the section concerning energy efficiency, a 20 percent decrease target in electricity consumption to be reached by 2020 is also set.

The strategy introduces various measures to overcome the financial and legal hurdles that might hamper the achievement of the RE and EE targets. It supports investments in RE projects by providing a total exemption from income tax over ten years to RE generators, and provides financial support in form of grants and soft loans. Other provisions include the introduction of an energy efficiency label and energy audits requirements for businesses.

Document available in pdf format: Jordan_Master Strategy for the Energy Sector (2005)

General Electricity Law No. 64 (2003)

The document defines a general regulatory framework for the electricity sector, setting out roles and responsibilities and delineating rules, guidelines and overall goals. Energy efficiency is identified as a national priority and various provisions to foster it are included.

The law sets a first group of direct and indirect provisions for RE generation that will be expanded in more recent laws. Notably, it provides a full ownership separation in the electricity value chain, allowing the country to have a high degree of unbundling in the power sector, a key condition to ensure fair competition among actors. Thanks to this provision, state-controlled utility regulator NEPCO owns transmission lines while the distribution lines are owned and operated by private companies.

Document available in pdf format: Jordan_General Electricity Law (2003)

 

AFOLU

The National Strategy of Agriculture for 2013-2020 is currently undergoing a revision that will include climate change provisions. The new strategy will stem from the key concepts upon which the National Climate Change Policy (see above) is based, such as enhancing resilience to climate change in the agricultural sector.

 

Environment

Environmental Protection Law No. 52 (2006)

The law establishes the Ministry of Environment as the institution in charge of environmental protection in the country and responsible of implementing and monitoring the provisions defined in the document. These include detailed regulation in the areas of water and wastewater, air pollution, nature protection and environmental impacts.

Full document available on the Ministry of Environment webpage

 

References

Jordan profile at the IEA

Jordan Country Profile from the 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study (pdf)

Jordan Country Report from the EEA (pdf)

Jordan’s Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources webpage

Jordan’s Ministry of Environment webpage

RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Renewable Energy (pdf)

RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Energy Efficiency (pdf)

International Policy

General features

  • Party to the UNFCCC (Non-Annex I):

Date of signature: 11 June 1992
Date of ratification: 12 November 1993
Date of entry into force: 21 March 1994

  • Member of the Kyoto Protocol:

Date of signature: n/a
Date of ratification: 17 January 2003
Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005

  • Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord

As a neighbouring country of the European bloc, Jordan benefits from numerous initiatives promoted by the EU both at the bilateral and multilateral level. Jordan is among the most active countries of the Mediterranean sea partnering with the EU on a series of climate and energy projects, which are carried out mainly through the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) framework. On an overall scale, socio-economic cooperation with the EU amounted to a total of €488 million for the period 2007-2013.

Negotiating position

In international negotiations, as a part of the League of Arab States and G77, Jordan generally follows the blocs’ positions.