Geopolitical Informations

2.715 million (2013)
Total area
10,991 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Bicameral Parliament

Latest News

Canada, China, EU joint climate diplomacy emerges as US confirms exit from Paris deal

The governments of Canada, China, and the European Union on Saturday (Sept. 16)  convened a Ministerial Meeting on Climate Action  “to advance discussions on read more...

Key meeting in Montreal shapes the “most ambitious program” of IPCC

The 46th session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change closed on Sunday (Sept. 10) in Montreal. Hosted by the government of Canada, the read more...

France advances phase out of hydrocarbons production by 2040

French Minister of Ecological and Social Transition Nicolas Hulot on Wednesday (Sept. 6) presented a draft bill  to phase out oil and gas exploration read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 10.41 4.36 589.57
1991 10.37 4.31 560.15
1992 11.12 4.59 588.92
1993 11.31 4.63 547.61
1994 11.41 4.64 544.84
1995 11.71 4.72 546.09
1996 12.1 4.82 565.07
1997 12.31 4.86 581.48
1998 12.81 5.01 619.56
1999 13.07 5.08 625.54
2000 13.16 5.08 624.46
2001 13.31 5.11 623.27
2002 13.56 5.18
2003 13.93 5.31
2004 14.01 5.32
2005 14.27 5.4
2006 15.67 5.91 659.7
2007 15.6 5.86 647.65
2008 14.98 5.61 626.21
2009 11.51 4.29 503.48
2010 11.23 4.17 498.73
2011 11.34 4.2 494.91

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 44,368
Oil 2262,083
Natural gas
Hydro 12,986 12,986
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 9,202 9,202
Biomass 477,504 477,504

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

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International Policy

General features

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