A group of Italian leading experts published a document with three proposals for addressing climate change at the global scale. The text, drafted by a number of specialists focusing on the economic, legal and scientific aspects of climate change, provides suggestions for actions to be taken in view of the upcoming international climate talks. Proposals include read more…
|Year||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)|
The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.
|Energy Source||Production (ktoe)||TPES (ktoe)|
|Tide, wave, ocean||0||0|
The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.
The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.
Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.
Energy data refers to year 2013.
Italy is a democratic parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. The legislative consists of a bicameral parliament with the Chamber of Deputies as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. The last parliamentary elections have taken place in February 2013; the Italian citizens will vote again in 2018 for a new parliament.
For a bill to become law, it has to be approved by both houses of the parliament independently. Laws either apply directly to a certain issue or empower the government to take action through respective regulations. Regulations hence need to be in accordance with respective laws. In this case, they can be updated repeatedly, which represents an easier and faster way of governing. Some issues, however, require treatment by law. Presidential Decrees, a Decree from the President of the Council of Ministers or a Ministerial Decree are examples for different regulations, with the first-mentioned being the most common. The Italian constitution lays down that the regional level is responsible for some matters and thus requires the federal level to delegate respective powers for the regions for enforcement.
The Council of Ministers has the executive powers in Italy. It is chaired by the Prime Minister, who is also referred to as the President of the Council. The President is the Head of State, but his position is separate from the different branches of the civil law system. He or she is elected by the parliament in a joint session with representatives from the different regions to ensure minority rights. The President is elected for seven years. His or her tasks are inter alia to appoint the executive and he or she functions as the president of the judiciary. The current president is Sergio Mattarella.
In December 2016, a constitutional referendum, which would have changed the Italian political system considerably, was rejected. As a consequence, Paolo Gentiloni followed Matteo Renzi as Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the majority coalition that won the last elections or the winner of a post-election leadership challenge. Moreover, in times of political crisis, the President can instruct a person as Prime Minister to form a national unity government.
Italy is a member state of the European Union, which is why EU legislation applies to the country.
As an EU Member State, Italy participates in the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of the European Union, submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in advance to COP21 in Paris in 2015 (see section on ‘International Policy’).
Climate Change Report 2015
The Climate Change Report 2015 reveals the Italian corporate strategy in managing Climate Change issues. The report includes the following sections:
- A global overview analysing and highlighting global trends that have emerged over the past several years in the corporate response to managing and mitigating the effects of climate change.
- A review of climate change management trends over the past five years among Italian responding companies.
- Results from the Climate Disclosure and Performance Leadership scoring process.
Kyoto Fund 2006
The Kyoto Rotation Fund, which was established in 2006, is active since 2012. It provides 0.5 percent interest rate loans to private citizens, local administrations and small and medium enterprises for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects (including building sector). The fund accounts for EUR 600 million. An extra amount of EUR 400 million is to be added, coming from the proceeds of sales of emissions permits to large enterprises covered by the ETS.
Climate Change Action Plan 2007
In June 2007, the Italian parliament’s environment committee (CIPE) set out a comprehensive action plan aimed at helping Italy complying with GHG emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. It revised the national guidelines on GHG reductions. Among the proposals was also a ban of the sale of household appliances ranked below A on the EU energy efficiency labelling scale. Appliances with an efficiency below A on the EU scale would be removed from sale by 2010, and low efficiency incandescent light bulbs would be banned from 2012. The industrial sector would be encouraged to switch to low energy devices and install more efficient engines and motors. Small and medium sized firms would be targeted.
Energy saving would be encouraged through various incentives aimed at industrial and domestic consumers. Under a new system of energy tariffs, heavy users and daytime users would pay more per unit of energy. The committee also proposed a 10 percent increase in waste recycling and says this could prevent four million tonnes of carbon dioxide annually. It further sought a shift in goods transport from road to rail, as currently 85 percent of goods are transported on the road.
Strategy to Cut National Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2002
In 2002, the Environment Ministry released the government’s strategy to cut GHG emissions by 6.5 percent below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012, as agreed under the Kyoto Protocol. The plan relies on the Protocol’s three flexible mechanisms of emissions trading and joint projects with other countries to deliver over half of the required emissions cuts.
Establishment of the Ministerial Technical Committee for GHG emissions (CTE) by CIPE Resolution 123/2002
The CTE is chaired by the Ministry of the Environment, Land and Sea but includes representatives of the Prime Minister’s office, various ministries (economy and finance, economic development, agriculture and forestry, infrastructure, transport, university and research, and foreign affairs) and of the different regions. The primary task of the CTE is to monitor GHG emissions, evaluate the implementation of relevant policies and to assist the Ministry of the Environment, Land and Sea in drafting policies for the reduction of GHG emissions.
Voluntary Climate Pact 1999
The pact was agreed upon between representatives of industry, NGOs and other groups as well as the government to cut CO2 emissions.
Already in 1998, the Interministerial Committee on Economic Planning (CIPE) had established guidelines for national policies and measures to reduce GHG emissions.
According to the Renewables 2017 Global Status Report of REN21, Italy had the fifth largest solar PV capacity in the world in 2016, which corresponds to the third highest global solar PV capacity per capita.
Renewable Energy Sources (RES) Ministerial Decree 2016
The Decree updates the allocation scheme of incentives to renewable energies other than solar PV, i.e. for wind power, hydropower, biomass and biogas as well as concentrated solar power (CSP). It maintains the regulations established in 2011 (see below), but decreases the overall support measures with an overall cap of EUR 5.8 billion per year. Depending on the capacity of the plants, different tariffs and procedures apply: If the plant has a capacity of 500 kW or less, it still obtains an all-inclusive tariff. Otherwise, the feed-in tariff is paid to the operators. Moreover, whereas incentives are granted through a registry procedure for plants with a capacity of less than 5 MW, tender procedures are used for allocation of support for plants with a capacity of more than 5 MW.
Law 116/2014 amending Law Decree 91/2014 on Urgent Provisions for the Agricultural Sector, Environment, Company Developments and Reduction of Energy Bills
The law contains new provisions on feed-in tariffs for solar PV and other renewable energy sources. In particular, it restructures the feed-in tariff for solar PV, whereby plant operators can choose between three different alternatives for already existing facilities.
The feed-in tariff for solar PV had been introduced in 2007 by a Ministerial Decree. Initially, it was dependent on the energy produced and dispatched and granted for 20 years. With the reform at hand, the feed-in tariff is reduced but prolonged to 24 years for new installations.
Decree 145/20131 “Destinazione Italia Decree” 2014
The decree establishes an optional incentive system for existing plants that have benefited from the green certificates (see below). In addition, there is a reinforced “Ecobonus” for energy efficiency measures in the building sector by providing greater tax incentives. Further, the decree enhances the White Certificate mechanism for energy savings (see below).
National Energy Strategy 2013 (Interministerial Decree)
Italy’s National Energy Strategy aims at reducing energy costs, achieving and exceeding environmental and decarbonisation targets, improving domestic supply security and fostering sustainable economic growth.
Over the medium-term up to 2020, the strategy has been broken down into seven priorities: (i) fostering energy efficiency; (ii) promoting a competitive gas market and getting the hub of Southern Europe; (iii) developing sustainable and renewable but affordable energy; (iv) developing an efficient electricity market; (v) restructuring the refining industry and the fuel distribution network; (vi) raising the domestic production of hydrocarbons; and (vii) modernising the governance of the energy sector.
Once the strategy has been implemented, the system will be able to evolve gradually. The results expected by 2020 are:
- Significant reduction of energy costs and gradual alignment of wholesale prices to EU levels leading to annual savings of about EUR 9 billion on the national electricity and gas bills.
- Exceeding the Italian targets on the EU level of the 2020 package leading to a reduction of fuel consumption and an evolution of the energy mix with a focus on renewables:
- Reducing GHG emissions by 21 percent below 2005 levels, exceeding the EU objective for Italy, which set at 18% reduction compared to 2005 levels.
- Reducing primary energy consumption by 24 percent compared to business as usual (BAU), which corresponds to a reduction of 4 percent compared to 2010. The European target of 20 percent shall be exceeded mainly through energy efficiency measures.
- Achieving a share of 19 to 20 percent of renewable energies in gross final consumption compared to around 10 percent in 2010. The share of renewable energies in primary energy consumption will be equivalent to 23 percent, while there is a reduction from 86 to 76 percent of fossil fuels. In addition, it is expected that renewables will reach or exceed the levels of gas as source number one in the electricity sector, accounting for approximately 34 to 38 percent of electricity consumption in 2020 compared to 23 percent in 2010.
- Greater energy independence by reducing the external energy bill by about EUR 14 billion per year, resulting from the reduction of 84 to 67 percent of fossil fuels in the energy mix.
- Positive impact on economic growth and employment thanks to major investments expected to be around EUR 170 to 180 billion by 2020.
As regards the long term (2030-2050), the strategy identifies the common implications that should guide the energy sector and be taken into account in today’s choices. Among the most important are the following:
- Strengthen efforts in energy efficiency: Primary consumption will have to fall in the range of 17 to 26 percent by 2050 compared to 2010 by decoupling economic growth from energy consumption. Efforts in building and transportation will be critical.
- The high penetration of renewable energy is expected to reach at least 60 percent of gross final consumption by 2050, with much higher levels in the electricity sector. In addition to the need of R&D for the reduction of costs, it will be fundamental to rethink market and network infrastructures.
- Substantial increase in the electrification degree, which will almost double by 2050, reaching at least 38 percent, particularly in electricity and transport.
- The role of gas for the energy transition is highlighted, despite a reduction of its weight both in percentage and in absolute terms in the span of the scenario.
Full document available as pdf.
Ministerial Decree 28 Renewable Energy for Heating and Cooling Support Scheme 2012
The scheme, which entered into force in January 2013, is also called “Conto Termico”. It provides financial for eligible investment on yearly basis for a period of 2 to 5 years. The level and duration of support depends on the type of improvement implemented, the technology employed and the scale of the measure. Conto Termico is open for public administration entities and non-industrial private parties, i.e. households, businesses and entities with agricultural income. Two categories of projects are eligible to benefit from the scheme: (i) energy efficiency improvements in an existing buildings and (ii) small-scale projects concerning systems producing thermal energy from renewable and high-efficiency systems. For private entities, only small-scale projects concerning systems for producing thermal energy from renewables and high-efficiency systems can be supported.
More information can be obtained here.
Legislative Decree 28/2011 for the promotion of energy production from renewable sources
The Decree introduces two mechanisms for the promotion of energy production from RES, starting in 2012: A feed-in tariff for renewable plants with nominal capacity <5 MW and an auction mechanism for renewable plants >5 MW. Accordingly, a feed-in premium for PV (Conto Energia) was adopted, which provides a fixed amount of incentives to whoever produces electricity through PV plants and related to the electricity produced for the 20 years following the start-up of the plant itself. The Ministerial Decree of 5 July 2012 – the so-called 5th feed-in scheme – redefines the rules on support for solar PV power generation. The tariffs of the 5th feed-in scheme are granted to regular solar PV plants, divided by type of installation (art. 7); building-integrated PV plants with innovative features (art. 8); and CSP plants (art. 9).
Under the above-mentioned Decree, the plants eligible for feed-in tariffs may be new, upgraded or totally renovated. Unlike previous support schemes, the 5th feed-in scheme grants an all-inclusive feed-in tariff to the share of net electricity injected into the grid and a premium tariff to the share of net electricity consumed on site. In particular, the following tariffs are applied: For the share of net generation injected into the grid an all-inclusive tariff based on the capacity and type of plant is paid for plants with a capacity up to 1 MW, and the difference (if positive) between the all-inclusive tariff and the hourly zonal price for plants with a capacity above 1 MW. The electricity generated by plants with a nominal capacity of above 1 MW will remain available to the producer. In contrast, for the share of net generation consumed on site, a premium tariff can be obtained. The values of the two tariffs (all-inclusive and premium) progressively decrease in half-year steps from the application of the scheme on beginning in August 2012. The new tariff system remains effective until 30 days after the annual aggregate cost of PV incentives has reached EUR 6.7 billion.
Law 102 concerning anti-crisis measures 2009
The law, which was enacted shortly after the onset of the financial crisis in 2009, includes several energy provisions to accelerate the deployment of advanced, efficient and energy-saving technologies. Moreover, it encourages the replacement of existing equipment with newer, more efficient technologies.
Law 239 on the Reorganisation of Energy Sector Regulation 2004
The law transferred certain responsibilities of promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies to the regional levels.
Green certificates for renewable energies other than solar PV 2002
The green certificates were issued by the GSE (energy service operator) at a fixed price and could be traded between operators on a dedicated market. It represented a cap-and-trade mechanism to promote renewable energy sources, which ensured that a certain quota of electricity fed into the grid stems from renewable energy sources. In 2016, the green certificates were replaced by feed-in tariffs based on the average price for electricity during the year (see above).
National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2007 (last updated in 2014)
The action plan includes the target to reduce primary energy consumption by 20 percent by 2020. For this purpose, it introduces minimum energy efficiency standards, following the EU Directives on Ecodesign and Energy Performance of Buildings.
White Certificate energy efficiency obligation scheme 2005 (expanded in 2014)
The scheme requires electricity and gas suppliers to help consumers to save energy. They can trade with certificates of certified energy savings that can be earned by the implementation of energy conservation projects benefiting consumers. In 2014, the scheme was updated by the Destinazione Italia Decree (see above) to include also telecommunications, water distribution and transportation.
Thermal Account 2013
The Thermal Account is a nationwide incentive scheme for renewable thermal energy generation. It encourages also public authorities to implement energy efficiency actions in buildings and technical installations. It supports energy efficiency actions such as thermal insulation of walls, replacement of windows, installation of screening and shading systems, replacement of heating systems with condensing boilers, production of heat from renewable sources, replacement of heat generators with electrical and gas heat pumps or biomass-fed heat generators, and the installation of solar thermal collectors and solar cooling systems.
Decree Law 40 Special Fund to Support the Implementation of Energy Efficiency Targets 2010
The law established a special fund for the implementation of energy efficiency activities. In particular high efficiency appliances, replacement of motorcycles, purchase of new energy efficient buildings, purchase and installation of inverters, high efficiency motors, uninterruptible power sources, purchase of newer and more efficient farm machinery and machinery for construction and boats are eligible for funding.
Budget Law 2010
The law provided fiscal incentives and financial measures to improve energy efficiency and to abate emissions, similar to the provisions in the budget laws of 2007 and 2008. EUR 200 million funding were obtained from the EU ETS in each of these years. The 2010 law particularly provided incentives for energy efficient buildings and the use of biofuels. Regarding to the latter, excise duties were increased for fossil fuels, while they were reduced for biofuels. In addition, a special fund to support the implementation of energy efficiency target was included in the law.
Budget Law 2008 (based on Law 244/2007 and Law 222/2007)
The Budget Law of 2008 revised the green certificates (see above): It raised the incentive period to 15 years and made the number of certificates dependent on the type of renewable energy sources. As such, it allowed small renewable energy plant operators to choose between green certificates and a feed-in tariff mechanism for 15 years. Moreover, the law included the opportunity for municipalities to reduce real estate tax to buildings equipped with renewable energy installations.
Budget Law 2007
The Budget Law of 2007 included tax deductions for upgrading buildings with renewable energies and enhanced energy efficiency. Moreover, it obligated traditional fuel producers to supply a minimum quota of biofuels (1 percent in 2007, 2 percent in 2008 and 3 percent in 2009). Furthermore, tax allowances were given for high-efficiency electric motors, fridges and freezers.
Budget Law 2001
The Budget Law of 2001 included a fund for the reduction of GHG emissions and the promotion of energy efficiency and sustainable energy sources. The fund was financed by a carbon tax that existed until 2002, when it was abandoned. The fund provided support of up to 80 percent of cost for programmes for the installation of solar power and reforestation programmes.
Italy implemented the EU ETS in 2006 and committed together with 12 other EU member states to return at least 50 percent of the revenues arising from the EU ETS to climate and energy efficiency programmes.
The transport sector is covered by plans of investments promoting the construction of new transport infrastructure and energy efficient transport, incentives directed to private persons for purchasing new, alternatively powered vehicles as well as bike-sharing projects.
Biofuel Decree 2014
The decree obligates fuel suppliers to add at least 0.6 percent of advanced biofuels derived from substances such as algae, waste or agricultural residues in petrol and diesel from 2018. In 2020, the percentage shall increase to 0.8 percent and in 2022 to 1 percent.
Decree Law 5/2009 Cleaner Vehicle Purchase Incentives
During the financial crisis, a temporary incentive schemes was launched to incentivise consumers to replace their old vehicle with new ones meeting higher environmental standards. The scheme applied to cars, light commercial vehicles as well as motorcycles and scooters. An additional incentive was given if the new vehicle runs on electricity, hydrogen or methane.
National Strategic Framework 2007-2013 Networks and Mobility
Italy’s National and Regional Operative Programmes (PON and POR), co-funded by EU Structural Funds, have allocated EUR 8.5 billion for the priority action area targeting networks and mobility. This includes EUR 6.9 billion for low-energy transport (rail and subway transport, multimodal transport, maritime and river transport, bicycle and pedestrian transport), innovative technologies and low-impact vehicles.
Biofuel Decree 128/2005
The Decree defines a target of achieving a 2.5 percent share of biofuels in traditional fuels by 2010. In 2007, the percentage was increased to 5.75 percent. Italy is Europe’s fourth largest producer of biodiesel.
CIPE Resolution Biomass Fuels National Plan 2000
The plan aims to promote the deployment of biomass to replace fossil fuels through an incentive system in the agricultural, transportation and energy sector. It represents the basis of the National Programme for the Valorisation of Agricultural and Forestry Biomass and the National Programme for the Valorisation of Biomass. These programmes, in turn, strive to achieve GHG emission reduction of 3 to 4 percent by 2010 and 2012, respectively. Moreover, the production of renewable energy from agroforestry products, the development of eco-compatible agricultural methods and the increased use of energy crops is promoted.
The national waste management system is based primarily on the prevention of waste and on material and energy recovery from waste as set by the National Waste framework Law (now abrogated by Decree 152/2006). Decree 22/1997 implemented the integrated waste management policy set up by the European Waste Strategy. This represented a reform in the waste management sector in Italy, through the promotion of clean technologies, Ecolabel, EMAS certification system, integrated networks of recovery and disposal facilities, voluntary agreements between public administrators and economic operators in order to create real opportunities for waste recycling.
Italy participated in REDD+ funding directly in countries such as Bolivia, Ecuador, China, Albania and Indonesia, and through the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change 2015
The National Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change is based on a Decree of the Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. It represents the framework document for climate adaptation. The strategy is the outcome of a collaboration between scientists, relevant stakeholders and decision makers. It provides a national vision to address climate change adaptation, actions and guidelines to build adaptive capacity, and concrete proposals about cost-effective adaptation measures and priorities. The strategy has to be updated within five years and complemented with the establishment of respective action and sectoral plans, which shall include timelines, quantifiable objectives and details of implementation.
In general, the strategy describes the state of knowledge on climate change and the impacts to be expected. This information is presented for water resources; desertification, degradation and drought; biodiversity and ecosystems; health; forestry; agriculture, aquaculture and marine fishery; energy; coastal tomes; tourism; urban settlements; and critical infrastructures. Nonetheless, knowledge shall be further improved, including the identification of vulnerabilities and adaptation options including respective opportunities. Moreover, stakeholder engagement shall be promoted, awareness improved and methods specified to identify best practices.
The strategy also integrates several other policy documents relevant for climate adaptation, such as the National Plan for Water Use 2005, the National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007-2013 and the White Paper of the Ministry for Agriculture on challenges and opportunities of the rural development in adapting and mitigating climate change 2011. Synergies shall be used as well between climate mitigation and adaptation policies, especially with respect to energy and green buildings, food and consumption, forestry and land-use, and water resources.
Regional governments are responsible for the implementation of local adaptation action plans.
More information on the process of developing the Adaptation Strategy are available here and here.
- Party to the UNFCCC(Annex I)
- Date of signature: 05 June 1992
- Date of ratification: 15 April 1994
- Date of entry into force: 14 July 1994
- Member of the Kyoto Protocol
- Date of signature: 29 April 1998
- Date of ratification: 31 May 2002
- Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005
- Date of acceptance Doha Amendment: 18 July 2016
- During the first commitment period until 2012, the EU as a whole committed to reduce its emissions by 8 percent compared to 1990 levels. Italy has met its national goal to contribute to this target of reducing GHG emissions by 6.5 percent below 1990 levels. During the second commitment period until 2020, the EU as a whole has to reduce its emissions by 20 percent compared to 1990. Following the Effort Sharing Decision of the EU, Italy needs to reduce its GHG emissions by 13 percent compared to 2005 levels until 2020. Italy has set a more ambitious target than this on the national level (see section on ‘National Policy’).
- Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord (according to the communication of the EU, it is strived for a 20 percent reduction compared to 1990 on the level of the EU as the Copenhagen Pledge; 30 percent in the case of comparable commitments by other industrialised countries and adequate contributions by advanced developing countries)
- Party to the Paris Agreement
- Date of signature: 22 April 2016
- Date of ratification: 11 November 2016
- Date of entry into force: 11 December 2016
- Post 2020 action
- The EU submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDCs) in advance to the COP21 in Paris on 6 March 2015 as the first Party (for more information on INDCs see here). Following the ratification and the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the INDC has become the first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)of the EU and Italy. The collective target of the EU in its INDCs is to reduce emissions by 40 percent until 2030 compared to 1990 levels.
Multi- and Bilateral Cooperation
- Italy is part of the dialogue forums G7/G8 and G20 as well as the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF). It is also a member of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
- Italy is a member of Mission Innovation and has thus pledged to double its expenditure on clean energy R&D until 2020.
- Italy has joined the NDC Partnership, which assists countries to achieve their national climate commitments and sustainable development targets
- Italy is a member of the Global Methane Initiative (GMI). The GMI was formerly called Methane to Markets Partnership and was launched by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GMI is an international initiative to advance cost-effective, near-term reductions of methane emissions. Signatory nations will collaborate with other governments and the private sector to reduce global methane emissions and enhance economic growth, promote energy security, and improve the environment. Other partnership aims include improving mine safety, reducing waste, and improving local air quality. The initiative initially targets three major methane sources, namely landfills, underground coalmines, and natural gas and oil systems. Italy joined the GMI already in 2004.
- Italy also forms part of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), which aims to reduce short-lived climate pollutants, such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone and HFCs.
- Furthermore, Italy has joined the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC) and the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF).
The EU constitutes itself one negotiation bloc in the international climate negotiations and always speaks solely with one voice. See thus the profile of the European Union for the negotiation positions of Italy in the international climate negotiations.