Geopolitical Informations

33.42 million (2013)
Total area
437,072 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Council of Representatives (Unicameral)

Latest News

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Macron’s climate finance rally to accelerate global response to climate change

On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

FOCUS: Carbon Markets within and beyond the Paris deal

One of the key themes under discussion at COP23 was Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which will allow Parties to voluntarily undertake cooperative read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 156.37 8.93
1991 126.79 7.04
1992 136.32 7.35
1993 144.8 7.57
1994 144.55 7.33
1995 132.6 6.51
1996 146.38 6.96
1997 176.62 8.14
1998 161.75 7.23
1999 160.06 6.93
2000 184.86 7.77 645.82
2001 182.48 7.44 623.12
2002 181.58 7.19 666
2003 171.9 6.62 942.45
2004 165.99 6.22 590.36
2005 174.53 6.38 594.56
2006 163.06 5.81 504.25
2007 174.33 6.07 531.8
2008 186.75 6.35 534.37
2009 209.67 6.95 567.01
2010 227.82 7.36 576.33
2011 236.79 7.46 546.81

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Oil 149701,854 38921,355
Natural gas 4925,229 4925,229
Hydro 466,464 466,464
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Biomass 26,268 26,268

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

Page under construction.

International Policy

General features

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