India’s Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has announced that no new coal-fired plants will be needed in 2022. This announcement comes in the recently released draft of the 13th National Electricity Plan, a plan outlining the country’s energy strategy for the five-year period 2017-2022 and making projections for the following five years, 2022-2027. The CEA estimates read more…
|Year||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)|
The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.
|Energy Source||Production (ktoe)||TPES (ktoe)|
|Tide, wave, ocean||0||0|
The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.
The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.
Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.
Energy data refers to year 2012.
In 2015, India submitted its INDCs to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in advance to COP21 in Paris (see section ‘International Policy’).
National Action Plan on Climate Change (2008)
The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) outlines existing and future policies and programmes that address climate change mitigation and adaptation. The NAPCC from 2008 does so through eight “national missions” that run through to 2017. In 2014, four new missions were added. The NAPCC was created by the Advisory Council on Climate Change, which included key stakeholders not only from the government but also from business and the civil society. The NAPCC can be accessed as pdf.
The eight missions contained in the NAPCC 2008 are the following:
- The National Solar Mission strives to promote the use of solar energy. Initially, it targeted an increase in the electricity production from photovoltaic of 1 GW per year and the establishment of at least 1 GW of concentrating solar power (CSP) generation capacity. As a result, 10 GW of solar capacity were aimed to be achieved by 2017 and 20 GW by 2022. When presenting the four new missions in 2014, the new Indian government under Prime Minister Modi also announced to significantly raise the solar capacity goal to 100 GW by 2022. Besides, the National Solar Mission aims to stimulate research, innovation and international collaboration such as technology transfer and capacity building initiatives. The long term goal is to make solar energy competitive with traditional fossil fuel energy (document available in pdf; for more information see here).
- The National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) creates a regulatory regime for energy savings. The NMEEE shall contribute to the annual avoidance of capacity additions of close to 20 GW and fuel savings of around 23 million tons. As a consequence, 10 percent of energy consumption shall be saved by 2018 to 2019. As part of the NMEEE different programmes have been launched:
- Plan for efficient lighting by replacing incandescent lamps with LED bulbs
- Standards and Labelling Programme to provide information about the energy consumption of appliances
- Super-Efficient Fan programme
- Corporate Average Fuel Consumption standards for cars
- Partial Risk Guarantee Fund for Energy Efficiency which represents a risk-sharing mechanism for financial institutions that grant loans for energy efficiency projects
- Energy Conservation Building Code which sets minimum energy standards for new commercial buildings and which has been adopted by eight states as of 2015
- Introduction of the energy rating system “Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment” to stimulate replication of energy-efficient buildings
- Under the “Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT)” mechanism companies in different energy-intensive industrial sectors can trade certificates for energy efficiency, thereby covering 60 percent of Indian emissions. That way, the PAT mechanism resembles an emission trading scheme (ETS). It also is attempting to include energy efficiency incentive targets (for more information see here).
- The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat focuses on the application of energy efficiency and other sustainability measures in urban planning. It also calls for the Energy Conservation Building Code of 2007 to be extended to include urban waste management and recycling (document available in pdf).
- The National Water Mission aims to improve water use efficiency by 20 percent through pricing and other measures (document available in pdf).
- The National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem focuses on the biodiversity, forest cover and other ecological conservation aspects of the Himalayan region. This mission is underscored by the knowledge that the Himalayas sustain the glaciers that provide a large portion of India’s water supply (document available in pdf).
- The National Mission for a “Green India” focuses on the REDD+ and LULUCF aspects of the NAPCC. It set the target of afforesting six million hectares of degraded forest lands as well as expanding overall forest cover from 23 percent to 33 percent of the country’s territory (document available in pdf).
- The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture supports the adaptation to climate change in agriculture. This shall be achieved through the development of climate-resilient crops, adapted agricultural practices, and the expansion of weather insurance mechanisms (document available in pdf).
- The National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change advocates for the establishment of a Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modelling capacities, and increased international cooperation (document available in pdf).
According to the Indian INDC, the National Missions under the NAPCC will be revisited. The National Water Mission and the National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture are currently redesigned.
The four missions that were added in 2014 are listed as follows:
- The National Wind Energy Mission is intended to make India a global leader in wind power. As part of the mission, it is aimed to install 60 GW of wind power capacity by 2022.
- The National Waste-to-Energy Mission aims to enhance the capacity of converting all sorts of waste to energy.
- The National Health Mission under the NAPCC is currently prepared. It shall formulate strategies for mitigating, containing and managing the adverse impacts of climate change on health.
- The National Mission on Coastal Areas has not yet been officially presented but is supposed to represent an integrated coastal resource management plan that maps vulnerabilities across India’s 7,000km of shoreline.
Additionally, there are many other national missions. Some of them, which are not part of the NAPCC, are nevertheless related to climate change, such as:
- The National Smart Grid Mission was launched to establish an efficient transmission and distribution network of power supply.
- Under the Smart Cities Mission, 100 smart cities are planned with a clean and sustainable environment.
- The Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) aims to renew the infrastructure of 500 cities across India in order to make them climate-proof and more sustainable.
- The Swachh Bharat Mission or Clean India Mission has the objective to make the country clean and litter-free by 2019.
State Action Plans on Climate Change
The State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC) mainstream climate change concerns in the planning process of the 32 States and Union Territories (in total there are 29 States and 7 Union Territories).
As imports account for 40 percent of India’s total primary energy requirements, India has traditionally strived to diversify its energy mix. Between 2002 and 2015, the share of renewable energy grid capacity has increased over 6 times from 2 percent (3.9 GW) to around 13 percent (36 GW). Wind energy account for almost 24 GW (65 percent) of the installed renewable energy capacity. But also installed solar power capacity has increased from 3.7 MW in 2005 to more than 4 GW (=4,000 MW) in 2015. According to the Draft National Electricity Plan, in March 2016 the renewable energy capacity was already at 43 GW. In total, 175 GW of renewable energy capacity shall be achieved until 2022 (see National Solar Mission, National Wind Mission + 10 GW of bioenergy). Regarding to hydropower, no quantitative targets are given put according to the Indian INDC the full potential of over 100 GW shall be pursued although models indicate that the flow of water will not be sufficient due to climate change. According to the Draft National Electricity Plan, an additional 112 GW of renewable energies are supposed to be added in the period from 2022 to 2027.
Nuclear power has a share of 2.2 percent of installed capacity with nearly 6 GW and six additional reactor with 4.3 GW at different planning stages. In 2032, 63 GW shall be achieved from nuclear power.
The Indian government also aims to double domestic coal production by 2020 to end the import of coal. Moreover, at the moment 65 GW of coal power plant capacity is under construction with another 178 GW in the pipeline at different planning levels. However, the implementation of all projects would result in large overcapacities and a lock-in of carbon-intensive infrastructure. Moreover, 37 half-built coal power plants with a capacity of 15.5 GW remain unfinished mainly because of financial constraints according to a governmental report in January 2017. In addition, it was announced in December 2016 by the Ministry of Power that 11 GW of inefficient, more than 25 year-old coal power plants would be phased out and replaced by modern, more efficient supercritical power plants. Beyond that, there have been cancellations of coal power plants. Already in June 2016, the Energy Ministry proposed to cancel four coal-fired ultra-mega power plants. According to the Draft National Electricity Plan, which outlines the energy strategy for the upcoming five-year period from 2017 until 2022 and makes projections for the following period from 2022 to 2027, no coal-based capacity addition is required during the years 2017 to 2022. Moreover, the currently still around 50 GW under construction more than satisfy the requirements for the period 2022 to 2027 as calculations predict a need of about 44 GW coal-based capacity additions.
Zero Effect, Zero Defect – Make in India campaign (2014)
The Zero Effect, Zero Defect (ZED) campaign targets medium and small enterprises to improve energy and resource efficiency as well as to use renewable energies with a certification scheme that includes quality controls for compliance.
Strategy for Providing 24×7 Power Supply (2014)
In 2014, the Indian government announced its commitment to achieve universal electricity supply by 2019 as part of the “Strategy for Providing 24×7 Power Supply”.
National Electricity Generation Plan (2012)
The main aim of this plan is to ensure reliable access to electricity, especially in rural areas. It also addresses how this might be achieved while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity (document available in pdf).
Wind Power Incentives (2009)
The incentives were designed to promote investment in new and large independent wind power producers. This incentive scheme was terminated in 2012 (document available in pdf).
Solar Power Incentives (2008)
This is a subsidy for solar power plants to help them develop renewable energy infrastructure (for more information see here).
Integrated Energy Policy (2006)
This policy addresses all aspects of energy, including energy security, access, availability, affordability, pricing, efficiency and relation with the environment (document available in pdf).
National Tariff Policy (2006)
This policy, in conjunction with the Electricity Act 2003, requires that electricity regulatory commissions must buy a certain percentage of grid-based power from renewable sources. The specific amount is determined by the State Electricity Regulatory Commission (SERC).
Source: The Gazette of India No.23/2/2005-R&R (Vol.III) available in pdf.
National Electricity Policy (2005)
This policy aims to promote the use of non-conventional energy sources. It did this by stressing the importance of making renewable energy sources cost competitive. It also sets the stage for the increase of the share of electricity that must come from renewable sources, as enacted in the Tariff Policy of 2006. Source: unofficial government document available in pdf.
Electricity Act (2003)
This was established to better coordinate developments in the country’s power sector by providing a comprehensive framework for power development. The Act includes laws that consolidate aspects of electricity use as well as promoting efficient and environmentally benign policies.
Source: The Gazette of India No. 39 available in pdf.
Energy Conservation Act (2001, amended in 2010)
This Act demands that large energy consumers abide by energy consumption norms, that new buildings follow the Energy Conservation Building Code, and that appliances meet energy performance standards and display energy consumption labels. The programmes that were created under this Act have resulted in an avoided generation capacity addition of about 10 GW between 2005 and 2012. The NAPCC and its National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency build upon the Energy Conservation Act.
Source: The Gazette of India No. 60 available in pdf.
According to India’s INDC (see “International Policy”), the share of energy efficient railways in transportation shall be increased from 36 percent to 45 percent. In addition, dedicated freight corridors in railways are supposed to be established but also coastal shipping and inland water transport are to be expanded.
In urban areas, transport policies aim to massively expand Mass Rapid Transit Systems (as of 2015, 236 km of metro rails were built, 550 km under construction and 600 km under consideration). Moreover, there is a Green Highways Plantation and Maintenance Policy that strives to plant trees along 140,000 km of national highways.
Ethanol Production Incentives (2007)
This is part of a scheme by the government to introduce financial incentives to develop the technology for ethanol and Jatropha for energy use. It tends towards the proposed indicative target of 20 percent blending of biofuels by 2017 for both bio-diesel and bio-ethanol (document available in pdf).
National Auto Fuel Policy (2003)
This policy mandated that all new four-wheeled vehicles in eleven cities meet the Bharat Stage III emission standards for conventional air pollutants and comply with Euro IV standards by 2010.
Source: The International Council on Clean Transportation – July 2013 Briefing available in pdf.
In addition to the above-mentioned National Mission on Waste-to-Energy, Solid Waste Management projects are to be launched and initiatives on waste water management to be started.
India’s NAPCC (see above) identifies measures that promote development objectives and yield co-benefits for climate change. The government’s adaptation responses to climate change are two-fold – through the existing developmental paradigm and through targeted new interventions in the most vulnerable sectors. Development is a critical policy response for adaptation; having a strong economy with strong growth is the core strategy for dealing with the challenges associated with climate change. The NAPCC identifies eight different sectors that are vulnerable to climate change, requiring adaptation response in terms of government policy and provisioning. These sectors are crop improvement, drought proofing, forestry, water resources, coastal regions, health, risk financing, and disaster management.
Indian Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change: see website.
Government of India, 2015, India’s Intended Nationally-Determined Contribution: Working Towards Climate Justice.
Joshi, M. and Khosla, R., 2016, ‘India: Meeting Energy Needs for Development While Addressing Climate Change’, in: S. Roehrkasten, S. Thielges, R. Quitzow (eds), Sustainable Energy in the G20: Prospects for a Global Energy Transition, Potsdam, pp. 57–63.
Nachmany, M., Frankhauser, S., Davidová, J., Kingsmill, N., Landesman, T., Roppongi, H., Schleifer, P., Setzer, J., Sharman, A., Singleton, C.S., Sundaresan, J., Townshend, T., 2015, Climate Change Legislation in India: An Excerpt from The 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study – A Review of Climate Change Legislation in 99 Countries, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment; The London School of Economics and Political Science.
The GLOBE Climate Legislation Study of India. More information here.
- Party to the UNFCCC (non-Annex I):
- Date of signature: 10 June 1992
- Date of ratification: 1 November 1993
- Date of entry into force: 21 March 1994
- Party to the Kyoto Protocol (country with no emission reduction commitments):
- Date of signature: —
- Date of ratification: 26 August 2002
- Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005
- Date of acceptance Doha Amendment: —
- Clean Development Mechanism: Even though India has no legal obligation under the Kyoto Protocol, it has been very active in its activities through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) with more than 2,166 projects as of March 2017 (see here and related Excel-file).
- Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord: In January, 2010, India submitted its nationally appropriate mitigation actions (Appendix II of the Copenhagen Accord), communicating the aim to reduce the greenhouse gas emission intensity of its GDP by 20-25 percent by 2020 compared with the 2005 level (excluding LULUCF emissions; see official communication and NAMA)
- Post-2020 action:
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in advance of the COP21 (Paris), on October 1, 2015 (for more information on INDCs see here). Following the ratification and entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the INDC has become the first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) of India.
- Main actions included in the NDC:
- Achieving a reduction of emission intensity of GDP by 33 to 35 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels
- 40 percent of electric power capacity shall be from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of technology transfer and finance from the GCF
- Increasing the carbon sink capacity of 2.5 to 3 GtCO2eq through additional forest and tree cover by 2030
- Better adapt to climate change
- Mobilisation of new and additional funds from developed countries to implement existing mitigation and adaptation actions
- Joint collaborative Research & Development shall be initiated for future technologies and to build capacities
- The implementation of the INDC depends on additional means of implementation to be provided by developed countries
Multilateral and bilateral cooperation
- India is a member of the G20 as well as the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate. India is also part of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
- India participates in the Mission Innovation and has thus pledged to double its expenditures for clean energy R&D until 2020.
- Moreover, India is a member of the Global Methane Initiative (GMI), which aims to reduce methane emissions, as well as of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF).
- The Indian Railways have joined the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition.
- he EU-India Strategic Partnership focusses on many issues, including counter terrorism measures, trade, migration, investment but also water, energy and climate. At a meeting in March 2016, a joint declaration was adopted on climate and energy issues, detailing all the cooperative areas of work, and the will to establish a Clean Energy and Climate Partnership. The Partnership builds upon the Joint Declaration for Enhanced Cooperation on Energy from 2012. Moreover, already since 2005 an EU-India Energy Panel exists that meets annually and discusses inter alia issues of clean coal and renewable energies.
- The Indo-German Energy Forum was established in 2006 and constitutes a dialogue between the two countries in order to intensify the cooperation on energy security, energy efficiency, renewable energy, investment in energy projects and collaborative research and development. The steering committee (the actual “Forum”) takes place annually with policy-makers and other representatives (e.g. from business and research organisations) from the both countries. Moreover, there are four sub groups, which are meeting regularly on the working level.
- Indo-US Partnership: In 2014, the Indian Prime Minister Modi and the then U.S. president Obama agreed to establish a new strategic partnership on energy security, clean energy and climate change. At a meeting in 2016, the partnership was deepened. At the heart of the cooperation is the U.S.-India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy (PACE). Moreover, there is a U.S.-India Clean Energy Finance initiative (USICEF) including a related task force and the U.S.-India Catalytic Solar Finance Program (CSFP). For more information see here.
Traditionally, India consistently argued against setting greenhouse gas mitigation commitments for developing countries based on the historical responsibility, economic capacity and the level of per capita emissions of developed countries. In addition, a high emphasis is put on the right to develop why the call for climate actions has long been seen as a threat for India’s economic development
With the increasing discourse and awareness over India’s own vulnerability to climate change, progressive groups have become more influential over time. As a consequence, action on climate change is more and more framed as complementary to overall development planning. Thus, India aims to present itself more and more frequently as proactive power in climate policy as represented by the announcement that India would never exceed the per capita emissions of Annex I countries before COP15 in Copenhagen in 2009.
Nevertheless, the position of India in the current UNFCCC negotiations can still be considered relatively defensive and conservative. In the more recent negotiations at COP21 and COP22, India has put a strong emphasis on national sovereignty and hence on the national-determinedness of contributions and the information contained therein. This relates also to reporting and the general design of the Paris Agreement. For example, India calls for a Party-driven process of the global stocktake in order to inform Parties in a nationally-determined manner.
Moreover, India still underscores the need of climate justice based on the historical responsibility of developed countries. Therefore, the principles and provisions of the Convention, including the strict bifurcation between developing and developed countries, should be (at least in large part) preserved. For instance, India advocates for the maintenance of a differentiated transparency system with flexibility generally and continually applicable to all developing countries. Additionally, the compliance mechanism of the Paris Agreement should only examine non-compliance by developed countries according to India’s statements.
India has also a strong emphasis on technology development and transfer. It regularly criticised that Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) limit the spill-over of technologies. Thus, developed countries should take practical steps to promote, facilitate and finance technology development in and technology transfer to developing countries.
As a consequence, India also demands a significant expansion of climate finance to be provided by developed countries. For example, India stresses as well that developed countries have to provide financial support to developing countries at an agreed full cost basis for all reporting functions under the UNFCCC.
Rajamani, L., 2007, ‘India’s Negotiation Position on Climate Change: Legitimate but not Sagacious’. Center for Policy Research, CPR Issue Brief Number 2 2007.
Michaelowa, K. and Michaelowa, A., 2012, ‘India as an emerging power in international climate negotiations’. Climate Policy, 12 (5), 575–590. doi: 10.1080/14693062.2012.691226 .
Submission and statements by India in the UNFCCC negotiations at COP21 and COP22 – accessible on the UNFCCC Submission Portal.