Geopolitical Informations

8.098 million (2013)
Total area
112,492 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • National Congress (Unicameral)

Latest News

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Macron’s climate finance rally to accelerate global response to climate change

On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

FOCUS: Carbon Markets within and beyond the Paris deal

One of the key themes under discussion at COP23 was Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which will allow Parties to voluntarily undertake cooperative read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 11 2.22 692
1991 11 2.18 676
1992 11 2.19 663
1993 12 2.19 639
1994 12 2.21 672
1995 13 2.29 685
1996 13 2.25 664
1997 13 2.22 640
1998 14 2.28 651
1999 14 2.25 668
2000 14 2.25 645
2001 15 2.38 679
2002 16 2.42 680
2003 17 2.52 691
2004 18 2.61 687
2005 18 2.64 668
2006 18 2.54 616
2007 20 2.76 643
2008 20 2.7 614
2009 19 2.6 620
2010 20 2.57 602
2011 19 2.47 569

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 151,633
Oil 2467,299
Natural gas
Hydro 239,682 239,682
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 29,068 29,068
Biomass 2182,274 2182,274

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

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International Policy

General features

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Negotiating position

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