Geopolitical Informations

25.90 million (2013)
Total area
238,535 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Unicameral Parliament

Latest News

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Macron’s climate finance rally to accelerate global response to climate change

On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

FOCUS: Carbon Markets within and beyond the Paris deal

One of the key themes under discussion at COP23 was Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which will allow Parties to voluntarily undertake cooperative read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 17.11 3.63 618.26
1991 16.85 3.52 578.45
1992 17.33 3.45 572.47
1993 17.35 3.37 546.9
1994 17.61 3.3 537.26
1995 17.81 3.23 521.76
1996 18.5 3.2 518.29
1997 18.98 3.15 510.2
1998 21.09 3.2 541.57
1999 21.91 3.18 538.77
2000 21.41 3.08 507.85
2001 21.93 2.74 500.2
2002 23.46 2.75 511.97
2003 23.16 2.67 480.37
2004 22.88 2.59 449.53
2005 23.55 2.56 436.89
2006 25.1 2.55 437.65
2007 25.66 2.52 420.28
2008 24.94 2.42 376.74
2009 26.87 2.45 390.18
2010 28.23 2.45 379.56
2011 28.03 2.39 327.71

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Oil 4208,449 4069,887
Natural gas 351,254
Hydro 694,106 694,106
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Biomass 5063,085 5063,085

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

Page under construction.

International Policy

General features

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Negotiating position

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