Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec. 19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS read more...
|Year||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)|
The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.
CLIMATE AND ENERGY
In 2015, the Sustainable Energy Action Plan was adopted which actually consists itself of three different action plans:
- The SE4All Action Agenda relates to the initiative “Sustainable Energy for All” (SE4All) launched by the former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon to achieve universal access to energy, especially based on renewable energies. According to the Sustainable Energy Action Plan, The Gambia inter alia aims to expand the utilisation of off-grid solar home systems through the SE4All Action Agenda.
- The National Renewable Energy Action Plan contains several targets for the time frames until 2020 and 2030, such as the addition of several MW of hydro, solar and wind power capacity or the spread of solar thermal systems in schools, health centres and hotels. It also sets out measures for the achievement of the targets such as the establishment of an enabling environment to attract private finance or the support of locally manufactured renewable energy products.
- Finally, the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan includes targets for 2020 and 2030 such as the 5 percent and 15 percent reductions of energy consumption in the building sector or the reduction of transmission and distribution losses to 20 percent and 10 percent, respectively. Measures as for instance the utilisation of efficient light bulbs or the labelling of energy appliances are listed for implementation.
In addition, the Renewable Energy Act of 2013 defines the basic responsibilities, establishes the Renewable Energy Fund and lays down the principles for a future feed-in-tariff for power from renewable energies. The Act is available as pdf.
Moreover, there is a National Investment Program on Access to Energy, which runs until 2020, a National Energy Policy, a Strategy and Action Plan 2014-2018 to promote the use of renewable energy technologies and to implement the recommendations in the Renewable Energy Act, and an Investment Prospectus 2015-2030 identifying implementable programmes and projects.
GENERAL PLANNING DOCUMENTS
The Gambia strives to mainstream climate considerations into its overall planning processes and policies. For instance, the Vision 2020 represents the long-term strategy to reduce poverty while ensuring the conservation of a well-functioning ecosystem. Moreover, the Programme for Accelerated Growth and Employment, which ran from 2012 until 2015, contained five pillars relating to sustainable and low-carbon development in which climate change is fully integrated.
OTHER SECTORS AND MEASURES
Several sectoral policies such as the Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy 2009-2015, the Fisheries, Forestry, Water Resources, and Biodiversity and Wildlife Management policies reflect climate considerations as well as the National Disaster Management Policy and the Decentralisation Act and Policy.
Besides, The Gambia has put forward national appropriate mitigation actions referring to agriculture and energy as well as national adaptation programmes of action, a process under the UNFCCC for LDCs to identify priority adaptation activities.
- Party to the UNFCCC (non-Annex I):
- Date of signature: 12 June 1992
- Date of ratification: 10 June 1994
- Date of entry into force: 8 September 1994
- Party to the Kyoto Protocol (country with no emission reduction commitments):
- Date of signature: —
- Date of accession: 1 June 2001
- Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005
- Acceptance Doha Amendment: 7 November 2016
- Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord: Due to its status as a LDC, The Gambia has no obligation to take mitigation actions as reflected in the Copenhagen Accord. Nevertheless, it has signed the Accord.
- Party to the Paris Agreement:
- Date of signature: 26 April 2016
- Date of ratification: 7 November 2016
- Date of entry into force: 7 December 2016
- Post 2020 action:
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in advance of the COP21 (Paris), on 30 September 2015 (for more information on INDCs see here). following the ratification and entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the INDC of The Gambia has turned into the first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).
- Sectoral actions included in the NDC:
– Afforestation (275.4 Gg CO2; unconditional)
– Installation of renewable energies (78.5 Gg CO2; unconditional)
– Reduction of methane emissions in rice cultivation (1,104.7 Gg CO2; conditional)
– Efficient cook-stoves (287.6 Gg CO2; conditional)
– Methane capture and flaring from landfills (237 Gg CO2; conditional)
– Renewable energy installations and energy saving appliances (121.7 Gg CO2; conditional)
– Reduction of fuel consumption through vehicle efficiency standards (114 Gg CO2; conditional)
– Reduction of transmission losses (98.7 Gg CO2; conditional)
– Increased lighting efficiency (42.9 Gg CO2; conditional)
– Installation of solar water heating facilities (19.3 Gg CO2; conditional)
– Reduction of ethane emissions from by composting, waste reduction and recycling (2.7 Gg CO2; conditional)
→ if all measures would be implemented, emissions would be reduced by about 44 percent in 2025 and 45.4 percent in 2030 compared to baseline emissions
- The Gambia is a member of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
The Gambia is part of three negotiation blocs in the UNFCCC negotiations: As a developing country, it is a member of the G-77 and China. Because of its status as a Least Developed Country (LDC), The Gambia is also represented by the LDC Group. Last but not least, The Gambia is due its geographical location part of the African Group of Negotiators (AGN).
At COP21 in Paris in 2015, Pa Ousman, then Minister in charge of The Gambia, emphasised that the Durban decision to launch another process in order to reach a global, legally-binding climate agreement would represent an acknowledgement that the Convention and the Kyoto protocol are insufficient to tackle climate change. In addition, the minister stressed that developed countries as well as other countries in a position to do so would need to undertake ambitious mitigation measures. This indicates a rather progressive and flexible notion with respect to differentiation and the Convention principles such as the one of “common but differentiated responsibilities”. Beyond that, The Gambia was a strong supporter of the 1.5°C target.