Geopolitical Informations

1.672 million (2013)
Total area
267,667 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Bicameral Parliament

Latest News

Bipartisan vote extends California’s cap and trade programme until 2030

The two houses of the Californian parliament on (Monday, July 17) have passed the bill AB 397 with a supermajority to extend the state’s cap read more...

IN DEPTH: A tangled case – Turkey’s status under UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement

Despite joining the position of all G20 members except of the US to designate the Paris Agreement as “irreversible”, shortly after the summit in read more...

IMO takes a step forward to tackle GHG emissions from the shipping sector

The meeting of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) ended on Friday (July 7) in London.  According to IMO’s read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 7.04 7.44 389.26
1991 7.23 7.43 376.48
1992 7.51 7.52 403.83
1993 7.65 7.46 395.74
1994 7.42 7.05 370.06
1995 7.6 7.03 360.96
1996 7.38 6.66 338.25
1997 7.17 6.31 310.92
1998 6.95 5.96 291.06
1999 6.48 5.42 298.2
2000 5.95 4.85 278.82
2001 6.05 4.82 277.7
2002 5.93 4.61 272.86
2003 6.14 4.66 275.6
2004 6.3 4.68 279.26
2005 6.63 4.81 285.17
2006 6.01 4.25 255.49
2007 5.96 4.12 240.18
2008 6.04 4.07 240.76
2009 6.12 4.03 251.41
2010 6.27 4.03 241.17
2011 6.78 4.25 243.59

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Oil 12455,34 590,009
Natural gas 310,939 310,939
Hydro 78,088 78,088
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Biomass 1233,163 1233,163

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

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International Policy

General features

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Negotiating position

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