Geopolitical Informations

1.318 million (2013)
Total area
45,227 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Riigikogu (Unicameral Parliament)

Latest News

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Climate Policy Facts



Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 62,816 65,205
Oil 3929,952 4809,08
Natural gas 550,789
Hydro 2,064 2,064
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 45,752 45,752
Biomass 940,609 708,114
Biofuels 7,212 11,053

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2013.

National Policy


Estonia is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, divided into fifteen administrative subdivisions of the country. The Parliament of Estonia is elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in elections. The Government of Estonia is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia, nominated by the president and approved by the parliament.

The Constitution of Estonia stipulates that the country is a sovereign democratic republic where the supreme power of the state is vested in the people. Estonia joined the EU in 2011 and the country’s legal acts were amended in the process of integration with the union. In charge of environmental and climate policies in the country is Ministry of Environment.

Sustainable Estonia 21 – Estonian National Strategy on Sustainable Development (2005)

The main strategic document in the scope of environment protection in Estonia is Sustainable 21,  which  is  aimed  at  developing  the  Estonian  state  and  society  in  the  time frame until the year 2030.
Full document available here


As an EU Member State, Estonia participates in the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) of the European Union, submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in advance to COP21 in Paris in 2015 (see section on ‘International Policy’).

General Principles of Climate Policy (2016)

In the end of 2016, the Government of Estonia approved the General Principles of Climate Policy until 2050. The principal theme of this vision is to “make the country a competitive economy with low carbon dioxide emissions”.  The general principles include:

  • The vision and national target of climate policy
  • Political guidelines for the economy as a whole
  • Sectorial policy guidelines for the mitigation of climate change
  • Sectorial policy guidelines for adapting to the effects of climate change

A  report considering  the  main  principles  of  the  climate  policy will be presented at  least once in every  four years.

Under the General principles of Climate policy, Estonia aims to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases by 2050 by 80 per cent compared to 1990 levels. As the country moves towards this target, emissions are going to be reduced by about 70 per cent by 2030 and by 72 per cent by 2040 compared to 1990 levels.

The policy guidelines for the economy as a whole include:

  1. Transforming into  an  attractive  environment  mainly for  the  development  of  innovative technologies, products and services reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. Green  growth  areas  with  great  export capacity  and  economical  and  ecological  potential  shall  be  prioritised and  their  development consistently supported by shaping a favourable regulatory environment  and facilitating access to funding.
  2. Shaping the climate-friendly attitudes and choices of consumers as well as companies, the awareness of the society of the mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects will be increased.
  3. Economic growth will be unseparated from the use of primary raw material by developing resource-efficient circular economy while considering the goals of sustainable development. On the basis of waste hierarchy, the reduction of waste production will be continued and the separate collection of waste will be made more efficient.
  4. Contributing to the cross-border mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects within the framework of development cooperation.

Full document available here

National Reform Programme “ESTONIA 2020” (2011)

In its overall reform programme, Estonia has set four objectives for energy sector to be achieved by 2020:

  • Bringing the share of energy from renewable sources up to 25 per cent of final consumption rates.
  • Achieving the 10 per cent proportion of energy from renewable sources in the transport sector final consumption rates.
  • Not to exceed the level of 2010 in total energy consumption (2,818 ktoes).
  • Keeping the emission of greenhouse gases to atmosphere within the limit of 11 per cent, compared to the level of 2005.

Full document available here


Climate Change Adaption Development Plan (2017)

Adaptation was dealt within sectorial development plans until The Parliament of Estonia approved a comprehensive adaptation development in 2017.

The adaptation plan includes short-term perspective (up to 2030) as well as the long-term perspective (up to 2050 and 2100). An action plan for implementation was developed in parallel with the adaptation plan itself. Estonia’s Ministry of Environment is expected to provide an annual reporting on the implementation of the adaptation plan and to coordinate the exchange of information between ministries.

The plan includes eight priority sectors:

  1. Human health and rescue preparedness
  2. Spatial planning and land use
  3. Natural environment
  4. Bioeconomy
  5. Buildings and infrastructure
  6. Energetics and energy supply systems
  7. Economy
  8. Society, awareness and co-operation

Summary available here


National Development Plan of the Energy Sector (2009)

National Development Plan of the Energy Sector until 2020 is Estonia’s main document for the energy sector. Under this plan, there are five more specific plans (Development Plan for Electricity Sector, Oil Shale Development Plan, Development Plan for Deployment of Biomass and Bioenergy, National Energy Efficiency Programme and Renewable Energy Action Plan) and one yet to be prepared (Development Plan for Heat Supply).
Full document available here (in Estonian)

As of 2017, the government plans to update The Estonian National Development Plan of the Energy Sector until 2030 that would ensure that the share of renewable energy in reaches a minimum of 50 per cent, and 80 per cent of consumed heat energy would be produced from biofuels by the target year.

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (2010)

The action plan summarizes the national renewable energy policies, forecasts final energy consumption and sets out renewable energy targets and forecast trajectories until 2020. Targets of the programme are:

  • Overall target: 25 per cent of renewable energy in final consumption
  • Heating and Cooling: 38.4 per cent of demand met by renewable energy sources
  • Electricity: 17.6 per cent of electricity demand met by electricity generated from renewable energy sources
  • Transport: 10 per cent of energy demand met by renewable energy sources.

Full document available here

Main sources

General Principles of Climate Policy until 2050

Climate Change Adaptation Development Plan

Estonian Environmental Research Center

European Climate Adaptation Platform

International Policy

General features

  • Party to the UNFCCC
    • Date of signature: June 12, 1992
    • Date of ratification: July 27, 1994
    • Date of entry into force: October 25, 1994
  • Party to the Kyoto Protocol
    • Date of signature: December 3, 1998
    • Date of ratification: September 14, 2002
    • Date of entry into force: February 16, 2005
    • Under the Protocol, Estonia was obliged to reduce during the period 2008-2012 the emissions of air polluting greenhouse gases from its territory by 8 per cent, compared to 1990 level.
  • Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord
    • Date of agreement: January 28, 2010
    • Under the Copenhagen Accord, the EU and its member states are committed to an independent quantified emission reduction target of 20 per cent by 2020, compared to 1990 levels.