Geopolitical Informations

82.06 million (2013)
Total area

Main legislative bodies

  • Maǧlis an-Nowwab (House of Representatives, unicameral) (Suspended)

Latest News

FOCUS AFRICA – Increasing gas export in a troubled semi-rentier state: the case of Egypt

Since the beginning of the 2011 revolution and the deposition of President Mubarak, Egypt has entered a new phase of political and social unrest. In 2014 Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi won the general elections by an overwhelming majority yet without experiencing an internal social pacification. In this context Egypt participated in the 2015 COP21 and read more…

African leaders call for adaptation-mitigation parity and 1.5°C target in 2015 climate agreement

Ministers and delegates from 54 African nations gathered last week in Cairo, Egypt, for the 15th African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN). At the end of the meeting, convened under the theme “Managing Africa’s Natural Capital for Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication”, they issued a declaration (the Cairo Declaration) that, among others, calls for read more…

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 126.63 2.25 373.17
1991 130.84 2.28 381.47
1992 135.22 2.32 377.51
1993 136.51 2.3 370.38
1994 132.43 2.2 345.58
1995 139.57 2.28 348.04
1996 147.14 2.37 349.48
1997 156.97 2.49 353.43
1998 165.22 2.58 357.57
1999 173.87 2.67 354.63
2000 174.14 2.63 337.09
2001 186.18 2.77 348.09
2002 194.07 2.84 354.44
2003 198.27 2.86 350.92
2004 210.62 2.98 358.11
2005 235.35 3.28 383.03
2006 247.14 3.39 376.45
2007 262.78 3.54 373.79
2008 267.03 3.54 354.47
2009 269.06 3.5 341.18
2010 276.58 3.54 333.54
2011 286.32 3.61 339.3

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 447,908
Oil 34967,764 35808,383
Natural gas 44183,719 39119,515
Hydro 1148,788 1148,788
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics 20,382 20,382
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 108,36 108,36
Biomass 1617,392 1594,468

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

Climate Change

The country of Egypt faces a number of issues connected to climate and energy. Historically a net exporter of crude oil and natural gas, in the recent years growing energy needs made the country on the edge of becoming a net energy importer, with negative consequences for energy security and public finances. In addition, Egypt is particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts, and has primary adaptation issues with regard to desertification and water scarcity. Climate policy is therefore an important matter for the country, who saw its GHG emissions grow steadily in the last decade at an annual rate of more than five percent.

Due to the lack of a comprehensive legislative framework for climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, Egypt’s policy on climate change appears somewhat fragmented as the initiative for climate actions is divided among government agencies. The two key figures are the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs and, within the Ministry, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA). A National Committee of Climate Change is in place since 1997 and brings together delegates from relevant Ministries, scientists and public representatives with the purpose of coordinating actions among the various bodies.

In 2010 a National Environmental, Economic and Development Study for Climate Change sought to identify the most urgent needs in terms of measures for climate change and concluded that a National Action Plan for Adaptation is needed to enact a solid strategy planning.

Climate Change Risk Management Programme CCRMP (2008)

Through a partnership with the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund, the Programme was launched with three main goals: to integrate GHG emissions mitigation into national policy and investment frameworks; to increase climate change adaptation capacity; to raise awareness about climate issues among the public. Increasing energy efficiency (EE) and deploying the large renewable energy (RE) potential that is currently untapped are seen as the means to make the country less energy intensive.

More information available on Global Climate Legislation Study’s Egypt country profile (see below).



Egypt’s geographic features, characterised by desert areas with water scarcity and densely populated coastal zones, make it a country highly vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation measures are therefore central in climate change policy.

National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management (2011)

This document identifies the growth in flexibility in dealing with climate change impacts as the main priority of Egypt’s adaptation strategy. Recommendations focus on integrating sector-specific plans with five-year plans and other overarching programmes, enhancing community participation and awareness, promoting regional and international cooperation, assessing and monitoring the progress. The Strategy outlines four phases lasting five years each, the first of which identifies a number of actions as key measures: the implementation of a GIS monitoring database for coastal zones, the development of a regional climate model, a study on natural protection systems, the drafting of a national legislation for climate risk reduction, the implementation of further regulation for coastal development, and the enhancement of public-private partnerships.

More information available on Global Climate Legislation Study’s Egypt country profile (see below).



Renewable Energy Law No. 203 (2014)

The law, seeking to establish a comprehensive legal framework for the development of RE projects, sets a number of schemes for encouraging private involvement in renewable energy production. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are granted projects through a competitive bidding process and enter into a long-term purchase power agreement (PPA) with the state-owned transmission company. The law also allows for private-to-private sale of RE-sourced electricity. RE production is further incentivised by the feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme adopted in October 2014 (see below).

More information available on RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Renewable Energy report and on Amereller’s report on Egypt (see below).

Feed-in Tariff Programme (2014) 

Established through Presidential Decree 1947/2014 of October 2014, the FIT Programme assists solar and wind projects under 50 MW of capacity and supersedes a previous support scheme which was criticized for being poorly designed. Through the scheme the government aims to reach an installed capacity goal of 2.3 GW for solar and 2 GW for wind. Financial support for wind and solar lasts 20 and 25 years respectively, while the tariff rates are technology-specific and vary according to the plant size. On top of the FIT scheme, beneficiaries enjoy a 2 percent renewable tax incentive.

Document available in pdf format: Egypt_Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff Regulations

Energy Subsidy reform (2014)

The reform was started in July 2014 through Decree No. 1257/2014 and was set as a five-year plan to phase out subsidies for the electricity and fuel. Subsidies have caused a large budget deficit and the government’s plan is to realign the energy price to a non-distorted level.

More information available on RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Renewable Energy (see below).

Egyptian Solar Plan (2012)

Under the authority of NREA, the plan set the goal of installing 3.5 GW of solar power by 2027, divided into 2.8 GW of CSP technology and 700 MW of solar PV. A series of measures to attract private investments include competitive bidding processes, feed-in tariff scheme, and third party access.

More information available on NREA’s Annual Report 2012-2013: Egypt_NREA_Annual_Report_2012_2013

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) (2012)

According to the Arab Energy Efficiency Guidelines based on European legislation, Arab countries are required to publish NEEAPs to attain energy saving improvements by 2020. Covering the 2012-2015 time span, the Egyptian NEEAP provides a series of EE targets and measures, the former aiming at reaching cumulative energy savings of 5 percent by 2015, the latter including actions to improve efficiency in lighting, tourism and public buildings, as well as the use of standards and labels.

More information available on RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Energy Efficiency report (see below)

National Renewable Energy Strategy 2020 (2008)

Through this document the government outlined a plan aiming to reach 20 percent of RE electricity by 2020, composed by 12 percent from wind, 6 percent from hydro and 2 percent from solar. The strategy, focusing on large-scale projects rather than small-scale installations, and will attain one third of the target through public investments.

More information available on RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Renewable Energy report and Global Climate Legislation Study’s Egypt country profile (see below).



Transportation is the fastest growing source of GHG emissions in the country, due to the massive use of private vehicles as a means of transportation and their low energy efficiency. The Ministry of Transport developed a strategy that includes an improvement of the public transport and the promotion of hybrid vehicles.

More information available on Global Climate Legislation Study’s Egypt country profile (see below).



Egypt’s profile at the IEA website

Egypt Country Profile from the 2015 Global Climate Legislation Study (pdf)

RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Renewable Energy (pdf)

RCREEE’s AFEX 2015: Energy Efficiency (pdf)

Amereller’s Investing in Renewable Energy in Egypt (2015) (pdf)



International Policy

General features

  • Party to the UNFCCC (Non-Annex I):

Date of signature: 09 June 1992;
Date of ratification: 05 December 1994;
Date of entry into force: 05 March 1995.

  • Member of the Kyoto Protocol:

Date of signature: 15 March 1999;
Date of ratification: 12 January 2005;
Date of entry into force: 12 April 2005.

  • Egypt is not a signatory of the Copenhagen Accord

Egypt participates in international low-carbon finance projects as a recipient. The Egyptian Designated National Authority for Clean Development Mechanism (DNA), consisting of the Egyptian Bureau (EB-CDM) and the Egyptian Council for Clean Development Mechanism (EC-CDM), is the body responsible for such activities.

Egypt takes part in a number of partnerships at the international level. Strong support is provided by the European Union and its Member States through the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims at enhancing political association and economic integration between the bloc and its neighbouring countries. An example of this cooperation is the Master Plan of Renewable Energy in Egypt, financed by the European Union through the Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF), aiming at encouraging the market penetration of wind and solar. Bilateral agreements with individual countries are not uncommon, such in the case of the partnership with Italy to make a zero-carbon city in El-Gouma.

Besides the EU, another important international partnership is the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI), a regional cooperation between the ten riparian countries of the river Nile. The partnership focuses on water management practices on the river in a multi-stakeholder approach.

Negotiating position

Egypt is following the trend of developing countries in climate change negotiations through international meetings and conferences. It covers a leading position among the region, both respect to Arab and African countries. Egypt is a member of G77 and China, the African group and OAPEC.

In international negotiations, the country is strongly opposed to any commitment for developing countries about GHG emissions reduction. Egypt is against the proposal of providing incentives for those developing countries that are voluntary committing to reduce GHG emissions. On the other hand, the country is in favour of commitment by developed countries towards developing countries with regard to GHGs reduction, technology transfer, adaptation funds, research and observation systems.