Geopolitical Informations

15.74 million (2013)
Total area
283,560 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • National Assembly (Unicameral)

Latest News

SPECIAL COP23: Powering Past Coal Alliance puts pressure on major coal consumers

The UK and Canada have launched the “Powering Past Coal Alliance” at COP23 in Bonn. The coalition unites a number of governments, businesses and read more...

SPECIAL COP23: High-level segment to step up last days’ efforts in Bonn

The high-level segment of the Bonn Climate Change Conference opened its works yesterday afternoon (Nov. 15th) with an official event at the presence of read more...

SPECIAL COP23: Private sector, local authorities discuss opportunities and challenges of climate financing

The climate finance needs and goals are usually among the hottest topics debated during international negotiations and COP23 makes no exceptions in both negotiations read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 30 2.93 399
1991 31 2.97 396
1992 32 3 401
1993 31 2.91 390
1994 33 2.97 390
1995 36 3.16 415
1996 39 3.34 440
1997 39 3.32 429
1998 40 3.3 421
1999 36 2.93 401
2000 37 2.97 410
2001 38 2.99 404
2002 41 3.12 413
2003 41 3.1 407
2004 42 3.08 382
2005 45 3.29 394
2006 46 3.31 386
2007 48 3.35 389
2008 50 3.42 379
2009 52 3.53 397
2010 52 3.51 390
2011 53 3.49 365

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.


Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Oil 26480,736 12244,315
Natural gas 490,982 490,982
Hydro 1052,468 1052,468
Geothermal 2,436 2,436
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 0,172 0,172
Biomass 606,719 606,719
Biofuels 3,841 3,841

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

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International Policy

General features

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Negotiating position

Page under construction.