The two houses of the Californian parliament on (Monday, July 17) have passed the bill AB 397 with a supermajority to extend the state’s cap read more...
|Year||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)|
The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.
|Energy Source||Production (ktoe)||TPES (ktoe)|
|Tide, wave, ocean||0||0|
The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.
The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.
Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.
Energy data refers to year 2012.
Climate change policy initiatives in the country date back to the early 1990s, with the establishment in 1991 of a National Commission for studies about climate change by the Science Academy of Cuba and the performance, a year after, of the first country-wide preliminary impact assessment. In 1997, the Ministry of Science Technology and Environment created the National Climate Change Group, co-ordinated by the Institute of Meteorology, which brings together all the relevant governmental and non-governmental institutions working on the issue.
Cuba does not have an overarching climate change strategy, yet it has established several institutional and legal frameworks endorsing both mitigation and adaptation objectives. The main initiatives are included in the National Environment Strategy 2011-2015.
Although there is no specific law or approved national strategy specifically devoted to climate change, the issue has received high political consideration, being also included in the 2011 Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution (Guideline 133, full .pdf document available in Spanish: Lineamientos de la Política Económica y Social del Partido y la Revolución).
The National Environment Strategy 2011-2015 (full .pdf document available in Spanish: Estrategia Ambiental Nacional) aims at enhancing the protection and rational use of natural resources, people’s environmental consciousness and quality of life, by tackling and adapting to the impacts of climate change. The strategy identifies six main environmental issues, namely i) land degradation, ii) factors affecting forest coverage, iii) pollution, iv) loss of biological diversity, v) water scarcity, and vi) climate change impacts, and identifies policies and instruments to prevent, solve or minimise them.
With respect to climate change, the following objectives are identified:
- To enhance the use of renewable energy sources;
- To strengthen adaptation measures in costal zones management (mangroves, sandy dunes, reefs, among others);
- Within spatial planning, to support the introduction of measures, actions, regulations and investments capable to promote a better adaptation to climate change impacts and to prevent the consequences of severe hydrometer logical events;
- To introduce measures that contribute to minimize climate change effects on health;
- To refine early-warning systems for the economic sector and the population;
Primary consideration has also been given to the climate change topic within the National Environmental Education Strategy 2010-2015 (full .pdf document available in Spanish: Estrategia Nacional de Educación Ambiental).
In 2005 the Energy Revolution was launched, as a response to the local energy crisis driven by the US blockage, rising of oil prices in the international markets and need for energy security in face of the natural meteorological disasters hitting the island. Its main objectives are:
- Improving energy efficiency and energy savings;
- Increasing the availability and reliability of the national grid;
- The generalization of distributed generation with smaller electric power plants;
- Increasing the use and development of renewable energy sources.;
- Increasing the exploration and production of local oil and gas;
- Fostering international co-operation.
Particular attention has been drawn on the development of renewable energy sources, by setting an ambitious goal of 24% share of renewable energy in gross energy generation by 2030. A National Group for accelerated development of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency was also constituted in 2007 under the coordination of the government, with the aim of researching and proposing ways to develop the country’s renewable energy potential.
In 2011, the Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution (Guideline 247) endorsed such policies by calling for an enhanced the use of biogas, biomass, solar, wind and hydro. Along this line, the recent Law on Foreign Investment (2014) mandates an increased use of renewables (full .pdf document available in Spanish: Ley de la Inversión Extranjera).
As for energy efficiency, the 2009 Resolution No. 136/09 on Technical regulation of energy efficiency in electrical equipment established energy efficiency standards for appliances and equipment and set penalties for non-compliance.
Finally, the 2007 Program to face climate change (see below) introduced within the Energy Revolution and associated programs the periodic inventory of GHG emissions and sinks, as a tool for environmental evaluation.
Adaptation is the main focus of the Program to face climate change (2007), endorsed by the Cuban government. The main actions envisaged by the program include:
- To prioritize and conclude studies on hazard, vulnerability and risk for the whole country, endorsing a technological, sanitary and social perspective;
- To prioritize and conclude the Macro-Project on Costal Risk and Vulnerability (2050-2100), mapping every year its results so to inform the policy making process;
- To incorporate climate change adaptation in all programs, plans and projects focusing on food production, water resource management, spatial planning and hygiene and epidemiology.;
- To incorporate climate change in environmental education plans at different educational levels.
Consistently, the National Environment Strategy 2011-2015 places special emphasis to the need of strengthening the implementation of adaptation measures in natural resources management and the development of economic activities and in spatial planning.
The National Environment Strategy 2011-2015 explicitly foresees the introduction of mitigation and adaptation policies in the forestry sector. Specific objectives include the development of an integrated program for the maintenance, conservation and plantation of specific species to foster the protection of river basins, with special attention to mountains and coastal zones, and to increase the forest cover by 29,4%.
Global climate legislation study 2015
MEDIOAMBIENTE.CU – El portal del medio ambiente en Cuba
Käkönen, M. Kaisti, H and Luukkanen, J. (2014), Energy revolution in Cuba: pioneering for the future?, Finland Future Research Centre.
Party to the UNFCCC (non-Annex I)
Date of signature: 13 June 1992;
Date of ratification:5 January 1994;
Date of entry into force: 5 April 1994.
Date of signature: 15 March 1999;
Date of ratification: 30 April 2002
Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005
Amendment to Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Date of acceptance: 8 September 2011
Cuba is a member of AOSIS, ALBA and G77, and the cornerstones of its negotiating position can be inferred from those of such negotiating groups. With specific reference to the expected 2015 Paris agreement, Cuba:
- Identifies the principle of Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR-RC) as pivotal to enhance the implementation of the Convention;
- Calls the process for enhancing the Convention implementation to address the special circumstances of SIDS and not to compromise their right to development and the right to survival;
- Indicates developed country Parties as those that shall take the lead in combating climate change;
- Urges developed countries to close the mitigation ambition gap during the pre-2020 period and opposes to any distribution of such duty to developing countries;
- Supports the maintenance of the differentiation between developed and developing countries as an issue of equity;
- Calls for enhanced action on adaptation , to be supported by adequate, predictable and sufficient financial and technical support;
- Requires the separation of the Loss & Damage issue from adaptation.