Geopolitical Informations

4.448 million (2013)
Total area
342,000 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Bicameral Parliament

Latest News

China launches first phase of national ETS

Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Macron’s climate finance rally to accelerate global response to climate change

On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

FOCUS: Carbon Markets within and beyond the Paris deal

One of the key themes under discussion at COP23 was Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which will allow Parties to voluntarily undertake cooperative read more...

Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 9.83 4.12 783.45
1991 9.53 3.9 742.19
1992 9.35 3.72 709.66
1993 11.55 4.48 885.19
1994 11.28 4.26 914.61
1995 11.11 4.08 866.03
1996 10.98 3.92 820.55
1997 11.4 3.96 857.66
1998 11.25 3.8 815.64
1999 10.79 3.55 803.48
2000 10.7 3.42 740.62
2001 10.98 3.43 732
2002 10.87 3.31 693.02
2003 11.12 3.31 703.33
2004 11.17 3.24 682.47
2005 13.22 3.73 749.57
2006 13.36 3.66 713.29
2007 13.43 3.57 728.62
2008 13.67 3.53 702.44
2009 13.72 3.43 655.77
2010 13.35 3.25 586.83
2011 13.1 3.1 556.68

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.



Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Oil 15702,619 687,223
Natural gas 123,224 123,224
Hydro 68,026 68,026
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Biomass 795,992 795,992

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2011.

National Policy

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International Policy

General features

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Negotiating position

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