Colombia

Colombia

Geopolitical Informations

Capital
Bogotá
Population
48.32 million (2013)
Total area
1,141,748 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • Congreso de la República de Colombia (Bicameral)

Latest News

IN DEPTH: A tangled case – Turkey’s status under UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement

Despite joining the position of all G20 members except of the US to designate the Paris Agreement as “irreversible”, shortly after the summit in read more...

IMO takes a step forward to tackle GHG emissions from the shipping sector

The meeting of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) ended on Friday (July 7) in London.  According to IMO’s read more...

Paris deal is “irreversible” for G20 leaders, except for US

At the G20 summit in Hamburg, Germany, leaders of the 20 major economies have expressed their commitment to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and to read more...

Climate Policy Facts

Emissions

Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 127 3.83 493
1991 131 3.86 495
1992 135 3.91 487
1993 142 4.04 501
1994 145 4.04 482
1995 150 4.09 472
1996 151 4.07 469
1997 157 4.13 468
1998 159 4.13 474
1999 153 3.91 476
2000 157 3.94 467
2001 157 3.86 458
2002 155 3.77 443
2003 156 3.72 427
2004 157 3.7 410
2005 161 3.72 399
2006 162 3.69 377
2007 164 3.68 357
2008 166 3.67 349
2009 169 3.7 351
2010 171 3.68 341
2011 178 3.77 332

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.

Energy

Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 57865,175 2867,488
Oil 49531,473 13092,66
Natural gas 9357,692 7916,852
Nuclear
Hydro 4092,052 4092,052
Geothermal
Solar thermal
Solar photovoltaics
Tide, wave, ocean
Wind 4,73 4,73
Biomass 3646,213 3646,213
Biofuels 30,697 30,697
Waste

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

 

National Policy

CLIMATE CHANGE

In 2015 Colombia did submit its INDCs to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in advance to the COP21 in Paris (see section on ‘International Policy’)

The National Economic and Social Policy Council (CONPES) is the body in charge in Colombia of translating climate change components into policy documents. In 2011, the document CONPES 3,700 was adopted, establishing the National System of Climate Change (SISCLIMA) as the institution responsible for coordinating and promoting climate change action and policy. Although the government has designed a Presidential Decree to formally create the SISCLIMA, it has not been officially launched yet. Nevertheless, the members of the SISCLIMA council have been meeting already regularly since 2013. SISCLIMA will coordinate the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan, the National REDD+ Strategy, the Strategy for Fiscal Protection Against Natural Disaster and the Colombian Low Carbon Development Strategy. The latter aims to deliver the objectives of the National Development Plan and CONPES 3,700 by promoting efficient low-carbon growth.  It foresees the formulation and subsequent implementation of low-carbon development plans for the sectors energy, mining, agriculture, transportation, industry, waste and housing. On this basis, appropriate policies, national appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and respective projects shall be implemented.

ENERGY

Law 1,715 (2014) promotes the use of non-conventional renewable energy sources, i.e. biomass and solid waste, solar, wave, wind, small hydroelectric and geothermal energy. Incentives include tax deductions and tariff exemptions on machinery and equipment required. Further, the law establishes a Non-Conventional Energy and Efficiency Energy Management Fund.

Additionally, Law 679 (2001) and Resolution 18-0919 (2010) establish the Programme for the Rational and Efficient Use of Energy and Other Non-Conventional Energy Forms. It includes sub-programmes for the diffusion, promotion and application of respective technologies and good practices in the residential, the industrial, the commercial, the public and the transportation sector. Moreover, sectoral energy saving targets were included for the time period up to 2015 in the resolution from 2010.

Similarly, the Law to Promote Efficient Energy Management prescribes actions in energy efficiency and demand responses. It establishes a Fund for Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency in order to implement related actions.

Last but not least, there was a project from 2011 until 2016 supported by the United Nations Development Programme to accelerate the adoption and implementation of energy efficiency standards and labels. It strived to reduce residential and commercial final energy consumption by 5 percent.

AFOLU

Colombia has participated in 2008 in an initiative pledging zero deforestation in the Amazon by 2020. Moreover, Colombia is working on REDD+ since 2009 and has come up with more than fifty REDD+ initiatives.

International Policy

General features

  • Party to the UNFCCC (non-Annex I):
    • Date of signature: 13 June 1992
    • Date of ratification: 22 March 1995
    • Date of entry into force: 20 June 1995
  • Party to the Kyoto Protocol (country with no emission reduction commitments):
    • Date of signature: —
    • Date of ratification: 30 November 2001
    • Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005
    • Acceptance Doha Amendment: —
  • Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord with several sectoral activities brought forward as pledge
  • Party to the Paris Agreement:
    • Date of signature: 22 April 2016
    • Date of ratification: —
    • Date of entry into force: —
  • Post 2020 action:
    • Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in advance of the COP21 (Paris), on 7 September 2015, as the first South American country (for more information on INDCs see here)
    • Main actions included in the INDC:
      – Unconditional commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent with respect to business-as-usual by 2030
      – Conditional commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent with respect to business-as-usual by 2030
      – Economy-wide emission targets (incl. LULUCF)
      – Reaffirmation of the commitment to  reduce deforestation and to preserve important ecosystems

Multilateral Cooperation

Negotiating position

Colombia is not only part of the G-77 and China but also of the Independent Alliance of Latin America and the Caribbean (AILAC).