Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec. 19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS read more...
|Year||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)|
The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.
|Energy Source||Production (ktoe)||TPES (ktoe)|
|Tide, wave, ocean|
The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.
The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.
Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.
Energy data refers to year 2012.
In 2015 Colombia did submit its INDCs to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in advance to the COP21 in Paris (see section on ‘International Policy’)
The National Economic and Social Policy Council (CONPES) is the body in charge in Colombia of translating climate change components into policy documents. In 2011, the document CONPES 3,700 was adopted, establishing the National System of Climate Change (SISCLIMA) as the institution responsible for coordinating and promoting climate change action and policy. Although the government has designed a Presidential Decree to formally create the SISCLIMA, it has not been officially launched yet. Nevertheless, the members of the SISCLIMA council have been meeting already regularly since 2013. SISCLIMA will coordinate the implementation of the National Adaptation Plan, the National REDD+ Strategy, the Strategy for Fiscal Protection Against Natural Disaster and the Colombian Low Carbon Development Strategy. The latter aims to deliver the objectives of the National Development Plan and CONPES 3,700 by promoting efficient low-carbon growth. It foresees the formulation and subsequent implementation of low-carbon development plans for the sectors energy, mining, agriculture, transportation, industry, waste and housing. On this basis, appropriate policies, national appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and respective projects shall be implemented.
Law 1,715 (2014) promotes the use of non-conventional renewable energy sources, i.e. biomass and solid waste, solar, wave, wind, small hydroelectric and geothermal energy. Incentives include tax deductions and tariff exemptions on machinery and equipment required. Further, the law establishes a Non-Conventional Energy and Efficiency Energy Management Fund.
Additionally, Law 679 (2001) and Resolution 18-0919 (2010) establish the Programme for the Rational and Efficient Use of Energy and Other Non-Conventional Energy Forms. It includes sub-programmes for the diffusion, promotion and application of respective technologies and good practices in the residential, the industrial, the commercial, the public and the transportation sector. Moreover, sectoral energy saving targets were included for the time period up to 2015 in the resolution from 2010.
Similarly, the Law to Promote Efficient Energy Management prescribes actions in energy efficiency and demand responses. It establishes a Fund for Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency in order to implement related actions.
Last but not least, there was a project from 2011 until 2016 supported by the United Nations Development Programme to accelerate the adoption and implementation of energy efficiency standards and labels. It strived to reduce residential and commercial final energy consumption by 5 percent.
Colombia has participated in 2008 in an initiative pledging zero deforestation in the Amazon by 2020. Moreover, Colombia is working on REDD+ since 2009 and has come up with more than fifty REDD+ initiatives.
- Party to the UNFCCC (non-Annex I):
- Date of signature: 13 June 1992
- Date of ratification: 22 March 1995
- Date of entry into force: 20 June 1995
- Party to the Kyoto Protocol (country with no emission reduction commitments):
- Date of signature: —
- Date of ratification: 30 November 2001
- Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005
- Acceptance Doha Amendment: —
- Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord with several sectoral activities brought forward as pledge
- Party to the Paris Agreement:
- Date of signature: 22 April 2016
- Date of ratification: —
- Date of entry into force: —
- Post 2020 action:
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in advance of the COP21 (Paris), on 7 September 2015, as the first South American country (for more information on INDCs see here)
- Main actions included in the INDC:
– Unconditional commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent with respect to business-as-usual by 2030
– Conditional commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent with respect to business-as-usual by 2030
– Economy-wide emission targets (incl. LULUCF)
– Reaffirmation of the commitment to reduce deforestation and to preserve important ecosystems
- Colombia is a member of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
- Colombia has joined the NDC Partnership, which assists countries in achieving their climate comitments and the sustainable development goals.
- Colombia is part of the Global Methane Initiative (GMI), which strives to reduce methane emissions, and of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), which aims to reduce emissions from short-lived climate pollutants, such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone and HFCs.
- Colombia also participates in the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition (CPLC).
Colombia is not only part of the G-77 and China but also of the Independent Alliance of Latin America and the Caribbean (AILAC).