Geopolitical Informations

331,900 (2013)
Total area
22,966 km2

Main legislative bodies

  • National Assembly (bicameral)

Latest News

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Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec.19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS will read more...

Macron’s climate finance rally to accelerate global response to climate change

On the two-year anniversary of the Paris climate Agreement, the French presidency organized an international summit to increase climate financing to accelerate efforts to read more...

FOCUS: Carbon Markets within and beyond the Paris deal

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Climate Policy Facts


Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 5.43 28.95 5668.49
1991 5.61 29.3 5298.36
1992 5.73 29.42 4836.1
1993 5.89 29.67 4671.5
1994 6.01 29.72 4764.67
1995 6.15 29.71 4839.82
1996 6.25 29.41 4847.09
1997 6.49 29.72 4866.57
1998 6.64 29.51 4798.37
1999 7.04 30.36 4675.14
2000 7.29 30.57 4285.59
2001 7.49 30.55 4191.63
2002 7.32 29.06 3893.96
2003 7.51 29.06 3654.47
2004 7.69 29.01 3577.43
2005 7.88 28.98 3560.31
2006 8.1 29.03 3495.16
2007 8.33 29.09 3549.94
2008 8.52 29.01 3496.33
2009 8.73 29.01 3574.19
2010 8.95 28.99 3525.63
2011 9.24 29.21 3557.25

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.



Missing data.

National Policy

Despite efforts in integrating different ministries and sectors into concerted decision making on climate change issues, Belize still lacks an overarching legal framework for climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. Long-term policy goals have been included in recently established development and environmental strategies, without this leading, however, to the predisposition and implementation of punctual actions.
Limited attention is drawn by the country on mitigation policies, given the negligible national contribution to GHG emissions. As for adaptation, a document named “Adaptation to Global Climate Change” was prepared after the First National Communication to the UNFCCC (2002) but it is not clear to what extent the policy has been implemented. In 2009, a consultancy elaborated a specific adaptation strategy for the water sector (see below) as part of the “Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change” (MACC) project implemented by the Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), CARICOM’s specialized agency on climate change based in Belize.


The Ministry of Forestry, Fisheries and Sustainable Development is the leading authority on climate change issues. Through its National Climate Change Office, it coordinates climate change policies across sectors and mainstreams mitigation and adaptation priorities into the national sustainable development agenda. Since its creation in 2012, the National Climate Change Offices is responsible for providing technical advice to the government on climate change issues and negotiating on its behalf in international fora.
Recently released long-term national policies have explicitly identified climate change as a significant threat for the development of the country and thus factored climate change considerations into the definition of future strategies. For instance, the National Development Framework for Belize 2010-2030, or Horizon 2030, mentions the need of implementing a comprehensive natural resources and environmental policy and strategy capable of including planning for climate change and its effects.

Along this line, the 2014-2024 National Environmental Policy and Strategy includes resilience among its goals and calls for the development and the effective implementation of a climate change action plan in tandem with the associated policy. Key initiatives identified to foster climate change adaptation include coastal zone management and climate-smart agriculture, improving disaster risk management by expanding the use of climate risk insurance and other financial instruments, and restoring protective coastal ecosystems such as mangroves.


As part of its Strategic Plan for 2012–2017, the Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, and Public Utilities (MESTPU) released in 2012 its National Sustainable Energy Strategy (2012–2033). The document drafts a framework for the transition of the energy sector and the economy towards a low carbon development path. Strategic elements include:

  • Improving energy efficiency and conservation by at least 30 % by 2033 compared to 2011;
  • Reducing the country’s dependence on fossil fuels consumption by 50 %by 2020, by increasing the provision of modern energy carriers utilizing domestic energy resources, coupled with improving energy efficiency and conservation;
  • Tripling the amount of modern energy carriers derived from Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries production and processing, including municipal solid waste (MSW) by 2020;
  • Building the Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology and Public Utilities (MESTPU) institutional capacity to accomplish its mandate.


The Government of Belize does not have an overarching climate change adaptation policy; however it does have a national adaptation strategy to address climate change in the water sector.

The National adaptation strategy to address climate change in the water sector in Belize: Strategy and action plan (2009) was commissioned by the Government of Belize as it has been determined that development will be economically impacted by deleterious effects upon the water sector. The plan identifies recommended adaptation actions along with a 10-year policy implementation schedule (2009-2018), and presents a budget for financing the strategy and action plan. Recommended actions include:

  • Establish an agency to execute integrated water resources management;
  • Strengthen the existing human resource capabilities and capacities in the water sector for improved management practice;
  • Formalize the legal mandate and operations of the National Climate Change Committee;
  • Strengthen the trans-boundary relationships to cover the impacts of climate change on the water sector;
  • Increase public awareness and education on water culture and climate change.
    Annex II of the document provides a review of relevant policy and legislation. Despite the development of a strategy and action plan, Belize is still without a comprehensive water policy and the accompanying legislation to give weight to that policy.

Main sources:

The Adaptation Partnership’s Review of Current and Planned Adaptation Action: Central America and Mexico

Global climate legislation study 2015

International Policy

General features

Party to the UNFCCC (non-Annex I)
Date of signature: 13 June 1992;
Date of ratification: 31 Oct 1994;
Date of entry into force: 29 Jan 1995.

Kyoto Protocol
Date of signature: -;
Date of accession: 26 Sep 2003
Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005

Negotiating position

Belize negotiating position is expressed by the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS).