Chinese government on Tuesday (Dec. 19) released details about the start of the long-awaited national carbon trading scheme, Reuters reports. Once operational, China’s ETS read more...
|Year||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita)||Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)|
The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.
|Energy Source||Production (ktoe)||TPES (ktoe)|
|Tide, wave, ocean||0||0|
The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.
The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.
The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.
Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.
Energy data refers to year 2012.
In 2015 Bangladesh did submit its INDCs to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in advance to the COP21 in Paris (see section on ‘International Policy’).
Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2009 (BCCSAP)
The BCCSAP highlights the need to adapt to climate change in order to preserve the development progress made in the recent years and decades. The vision is to eradicate poverty and achieve economic and social well-being through a pro-poor climate change management strategy that prioritises adaptation and disaster risk reduction. However, it also addresses mitigation of climate change. The six pillars on which the BCCSAP is built on are the following:
- Food security, social protection and health,
- Comprehensive disaster management,
- Research and knowledge management,
- Mitigation and low carbon development, and
- Capacity-building and institutional strengthening.
In total, there are 44 programmes listed in the BCCSAP which define in more detail the six themes.
Renewable Energy Policy 2008 (REP)
The Renewable Energy Policy (REP) of Bangladesh sets out targets to achieve a share of 5 percent of renewable energies by 2015 and 10 percent by 2020 in electricity generation. In addition, the REP aims to provide electricity to all inhabitants by 2020. These targets translate into the installation of 800 MW renewable energy capacity in 2015 and 2,000 MW in 2020. However, it has also been reported that the government plans to achieve a total installed capacity of 1,000-1,200 MW renewable energies by 2015. In any case, a solar programme of 500 MW plays a decisive role in this consideration. However, these numbers are relatively small compared to the annual increase in demand requiring additions of 500 MW of installed capacity. According to IRENA, Bangladesh has only achieved a capacity of close to 400 MW in 2015, indicating that the large potential for solar energy despite the restricted availability of land has not been utilised.
Programme for Solar Home Systems (SHS)
Bangladesh has a programme in place for the distribution of Solar Home Systems in order to supply electricity to mostly poor people in rural areas. According to reports from February 2017, already 5 million SHS have been installed, reaching more than 20 million people. The Seventh Five Year Plan of Bangladesh even says that Bangladesh has the fastest growing, off-grid SHS coverage.
Action Plan for Energy Efficiency and Conservation 2013
The Action Plan for Energy Efficiency and Conservation establishes the Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Authority (SREDA) to serve as a coordinating organisation of governmental programmes associated with energy efficiency and conservation. It includes several targets: 10 percent of primary and secondary energy shall be saved by 2015. Until 2021, this percentage shall be increased to 15 percent and in 2030 finally 20 percent are supposed to be reached. Moreover, the Action Plan commissions the development of a mandatory energy efficiency labelling framework for equipment and appliances, the issuance of National Energy Conservation Building Guidelines and the development of a National Energy Conservation Master Plan.
The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Master Plan 2015
The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Master Plan basically restates the targets as emphasised in the Action Plan above. But it also establishes the respective programmes for achieve these targets and defines the roles and responsibilities in executing the programmes. Moreover, the progress already made is emphasised in the Master Plan, such as the decrease in energy use per GDP by 33 percent over the preceding decade.
Other Policies and Plans
Other policies for instance include a Country Action Plan for Clean Cookstoves from 2013 to support the goal of 100 percent clean cooking solutions by 2030. Moreover, there is a strategy to boost private sector investments as part of public-private partnerships.
Next to these policies that also aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the government focuses on the development of new coal power plants, as set out in the Seventh Five Year Plan. In line with this, the energy minister of Bangladesh gave a speech on February 1, 2017, outlining the government’s plan to massively expand energy production from coal power plants. In total, 25 plants are supposed to be added by 2022 with a capacity of 23.7 GW which shall be constructed with assistance from China, India and Japan. This would increase the share of coal in the electricity mix to around 50 percent. Several of these projects are very controversial as reported by Reuters. At least four people died at violent protests against the construction of a coal power plant in the south-east of the country. Another coal plant is planned close to the world heritage of the largest mangrove forests globally – which has led to discussions if the world heritage status can be retained. The government is accused to neglect the concerns of the local population and to bypass provisions for public participation processes. However, there have been also reports over slow progress on the planned coal power plants due to bureaucratic difficulties.
The share of the transport sector in Bangladesh is growing faster than that of any other sector why it has been made a priority by the government. According to the Seventh Five Year Plan, the import of cars which are more than three years old are banned in order to improve the fuel economy.
Short-Lived Climate Pollutants
The National Action Plan for Short Lived Climate Pollutants of 2014 defines sixteen abatement measures in order to reduce the respective emissions.
Environmental Management and Forestry
In total, there are 187 statutory laws in Bangladesh that relate to environmental management (see here). As such, they provide a solid legal basis for climate policy-making for a LDC like Bangladesh. Examples are the Environmental Policy from 1992 or the Environment Conservation Act of 1995. The latter was amended in 2002 to include the principle of environmental primacy. In addition, the Forest Policy from 1994 sets the goal to raise forest cover to 20 percent by 2015. However, this objective is restated in the Seventh Five Year Plan, indicating that the target has not yet been reached. Furthermore, Bangladesh adopted a REDD+ Readiness Roadmap in 2012 in order to obtain funding for REDD+ projects. Finally, the Bangladesh Green Development Plan aims to develop new programmes in the areas of the environment, energy and climate change.
Planning and Fiscal Policies
The Seventh Five Year Plan that represents the central planning instrument for the time frame from 2016 until 2020 includes a dedicated chapter on the environment and climate change. Moreover, the Vision 2021 and the related Perspective Plan of Bangladesh from 2010 to 2021 does not only lay down the aspiration to graduate to a middle-income country by 2021, the year of the 50th anniversary of the independence. It also represents a key adaptation planning document. Chapter 13 deals with environmentally sustainable development and addresses climate change to a considerable extent.
Furthermore, the Climate Fiscal Framework of 2014 provides the principles and tools for climate fiscal policy-making. It represents the governance framework for climate change funds under the national fiscal policy and thus indicates the progress made on climate mainstreaming. According to the framework, climate funds shall be divided and allocated equitably across the different relevant sectors and regions. Additionally, the framework recommends a set of climate codes to track climate expenditures in order to be able to analyse and report the spending as well as to estimate long-term climate finance needs.
- Party to the UNFCCC (non-Annex I):
- Date of signature: 09 June 1992
- Date of ratification: 15 April 1994
- Date of entry into force: 14 July 1994
- Party to the Kyoto Protocol (country with no emission reduction commitments):
- Date of signature: —
- Date of ratification: 22 October 2001
- Date of entry into force: 16 February 2005
- Acceptance Doha Amendment: 13 November 2016
- Signatory of the Copenhagen Accord: Due to its status as a LDC, Bangladesh has no obligation to take mitigation actions as reflected in the Copenhagen Accord. Nevertheless, it has signed the Copenhagen Accord and has expressed its willingness to undertake mitigation actions if support is provided.
- Party to the Paris Agreement
- Date of signature: 22 April 2016
- Date of ratification: 21 September 2016
- Date of entry into force: 4 November 2016
- Post 2020 action:
- Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in advance of the COP21 (Paris) on 25 September 2015 (for more information on INDCs see here). Following the ratification and entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the INDC has turned into the first Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) of Bangladesh.
- Main actions included in the NDC:
– Reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the sectors power, transport and industry by 5 percent below the business-as-usual scenario (unconditional)
– Reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the sectors power, transport and industry by 15 percent below the business-as-usual scenario (conditional)
– Use of super-critical technology in coal generation
– Additional 400 MW generation from wind power and 100 MW from solar power plants
– Shift from road to rail by 20 percent and 15 percent efficiency improvements of vehicles
– 25 percent energy consumption reduction in commercial buildings
– 50 percent reduction of draft animals and 35 percent increase of organic fertilisers in agriculture
– Capture 70 percent of landfill gas from dump sites for electricity generation and 50 percent more composting in waste sector
– 10 percent reduction of energy consumption in industrial sector
– If new and more robust data emerge or underlying assumptions change, the INDC will be updates accordingly
– INDC is based on 7 programmes and respective objectives of the BCCSAP and the estimated cost of key mitigation measures are given in a table
- Bangladesh is a member of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).
- Bangladesh has joined the NDC Partnership, which aims to assist countries in achieving their climate commitments and the sustainable development goals.
- Bangladesh participates in the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), which strives to reduce emissions from short-lived climate pollutants, such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone and HFCs.
In the international climate negotiations, Bangladesh is part of two negotiating blocks. First, as a developing country it has joined the G-77 and China. Second, due to its status as a LDC, it also belongs to the Least Developed Country Group.
Bangladesh is also member of the Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF) and has thus pledged through the CVF Vision and the Marrakech Communique at COP22 to strive to meet 100 percent renewable energy production as soon as possible and to update its INDC before 2020.