Algeria

Algeria

Geopolitical Informations

Capital
Algiers
Population
39.21 million (2013)
Total area
2.381.741 km²

Latest News

FOCUS AFRICA – Energy made to export: the case of Algeria

A rentier state with a national GDP almost entirely dependent on hydrocarbons revenues, Algeria is a strategic geopolitical actor for the Mediterranean and Northern African area, and also a likely green energy exports leader in the near future, if policy pledges are to be fulfilled. The People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria is today the largest read more…

The road towards COP21: an overview of INDCs from the MENA region

On September 16th Tunisia was the fourth country of the MENA region to submit its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) in view of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP21) to be held in Paris this December. Morocco has been the first country of the region to contribute submitting its INDC in June, followed by read more…

SPECIAL COP23: the Bula spirit makes progress on Paris Agreement implementation

The 23rd session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties concluded its works on the early morning of Saturday 18th November, after that delegates read more...

Climate Policy Facts

Emissions

Year Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF ( MtCO2e) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per Capita ( tCO2e Per Capita) Total GHG Emissions Excluding LUCF Per GDP ( tCO2e / Million $ GDP)
1990 101.73 3.88 383.01
1991 100.27 3.73 382.12
1992 99.33 3.61 371.82
1993 106.21 3.77 406.13
1994 103.41 3.6 399.01
1995 104.37 3.56 387.95
1996 103.95 3.48 371.17
1997 107.33 3.54 379.07
1998 110.29 3.58 370.62
1999 115.54 3.69 376.24
2000 118.06 3.72 376.15
2001 115.39 3.59 351.46
2002 122.22 3.75 352.52
2003 126.79 3.84 341.12
2004 128.6 3.84 331.72
2005 134.37 3.96 327.3
2006 140.03 4.06 335.39
2007 148.41 4.23 343.76
2008 153.67 4.3 348.97
2009 163.75 4.5 365.64
2010 165.24 4.46 356.16
2011 171.04 4.53 359.32

The line chart shows the country’s carbon emissions by year, expressed in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (MtCO2e) for emission totals, and in tonnes of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e) for per capita and per dollar of GDP values. It is based on data from CAIT platform provided by the World Resource Insititute, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

By selecting or deselecting each item, you can compare or give prominence to particular emission trends.

Energy

Energy Source Production (ktoe) TPES (ktoe)
Coal 0 292,319
Oil 71184,844 17959,265
Natural gas 72509,774 28008,884
Nuclear 0 0
Hydro 53,492 53,492
Geothermal 0 0
Solar thermal 0 0
Solar photovoltaics 0 0
Tide, wave, ocean 0 0
Wind 0 0
Biomass 15,57 15,57
Biofuels 0 0
Waste 0 0

The double-doughnut chart shows the country’s energy production and TPES (Total Primary Energy Supply), expressed in thousand tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe). It is built on data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency libraries, and updated regularly with the most recent data available.

The INNER RING represents the country’s energy production from each energy source, corresponding to the quantities of fuels extracted or produced.

The OUTER RING shows the country’s total primary energy supply of each fuel. It represents the net quantities of fuels made available on the domestic market, after foreign transfers and trading. According to IEA’s definition, TPES equals production plus imports minus exports minus international bunkers plus or minus stock changes.

Differences between production and TPES are significant as they highlight the actual country’s behaviour in the matter of a given energy source. Production values and TPES values of the same energy source may vary widely, especially in case of the much-traded fossil fuels.

Energy data refers to year 2012.

National Policy

In the last two decades Algeria has undergone profound legislative change with regard to climate policy. Due to its geographical features, Algeria is one of the countries that would bear the largest negative impacts from climate change (see the Adaptation section below). This high vulnerability, coupled with a high dependency on fossil fuels, has induced the government to make strong investment on both adaptation and mitigation policies.

Since the turn of the century, Algeria has worked for the development of one of the most comprehensive mitigation and adaptation strategies among the MENA countries. The three pillars of the national strategy are adaptation to climate change, ensuring sustainable economic development and mitigation of GHG emissions through renewable energy deployment and reforestation.

 

Climate change

Law 2004-09 relative to Renewable Energy Promotion in the Framework of Sustainable Development

The legislative framework under which climate change measures and programs are implemented is defined by Law 2004-09 relative to Renewable Energy Promotion in the Framework of Sustainable Development. The law, based on the commitments stated in Law 1999-09 on the Management of Energy, identifies the main policy objectives of promoting national development of renewable energy sources, curbing GHG emissions and fostering sustainable development through the reduction of fossil fuel use. These overarching policy objectives are meant to work as a general background for more specific regulations. The main institutions in charge of the promulgation of such regulations are four ministries: the Ministry of Land Management and the Environment, the Ministry of Energy and Mines, the Ministry of Water Resources and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. A number of specialized agencies, such as the National Observatory for Environment and Sustainable Development, are focused on more detailed working areas. Among these, the National Agency for Climate Change is the body carrying out a periodic inventory of national GHG emissions and the central figure in the implementation of national climate change policy.

Full document accessible in pdf format: Algeria_Law 2004-09 on Renewable Energy Promotion in the Framework of Sustainable Development

 

National Plan of Action for the Environment and Sustainable Development (PNAE-DD – 2002)

The first of a number of action plans that have been issued to support sustainable development is the National Plan of Action for the Environment and Sustainable Development (PNAE-DD). Published in 2002, it establishes a legislative basis for future regulation. The PNAE-DD is used to set the programs and measures addressing climate change in numerous aspects, including energy, transport, waste, water, agriculture and forestry.

Full document accessible in pdf format: Algeria_National Plan of Action for the Environment and Sustainable Development (2002)

 

Adaptation

The issuing of the National Plan of Action and Adaptation to Climate Change (PNA-ACC) in 2003 enabled the setting of a series of both mitigation and adaptation measures. The PNA-ACC lasted ten years and has been renewed in 2013. Due to the high risk of droughts and desertification, adaptation measures included in the PNA-ACC are primarily focused on securing water supply and address desertification. These measures entail the construction of dams, water sanitation facilities, water treatment and desalination plants throughout the country, in addition to anti-desertification actions supporting biodiversity and programs to adapt local agriculture to climate change.

 

Energy

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development Plan 2011-2030 (2011)

The framework under which the Algerian government is setting its clean energy strategy is the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development Plan 2011-2030, designed by the Ministry of Energy and Mines. The purpose of the plan is to act as a driver of sustainable development, to increase energy security and to create green jobs by increasing the renewable energy share and diversifying the energy mix. The lion’s share is formed by solar energy, which is identified as having a paramount role for renewable energy development, whereas hydro, biomass, geothermal and wind power will have a subordinate role. The plan sets a series of ambitious targets for renewable energy (RE) deployment:

1. to install 22 GW of RE power generating capacity in the 2011-2030 time span, of which 12 GW for domestic use and the remainder for export purposes;

2. to achieve 40 percent RE-sourced electricity generation by 2030, consisting mainly of solar power (37 percent) and complemented with wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal (aggregate 3 percent).

In parallel, energy efficiency (EE) measures are established in several settings, such as buildings, transport, heating and cooling, energy generation and light appliances. According to the Algerian Renewable Energy Development Center (CDER), the latest national program issued in 2015 put particular emphasis on the sectors of buildings, transport and industry. The tonnes of oil equivalent (TOE) saved by such measures in the three sectors by 2030 are forecasted to be 30, 15 and 34 million respectively. Previous EE measures were introduced in 2009 in the form of minimum energy performance standards and labeling scheme, and with the National Program for Energy Conservation of 2004 (see the Energy Efficiency fact sheet from RCREEE in References).

Connected to meeting the targets set in the Development Plan 2011-2030 are a number of financial measures intended to support RE and EE investments. These include the 2014 Feed-in Tariff scheme for solar PV installations, the 2011 RE fund for investments and the 2000 National Fund for Energy Management (see below).

Full document of the Development Plan 2011-2030 is accessible here in pdf format: Algeria_Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development Plan 2011-2030 (2011)

 

Feed-in Tariff scheme for solar PV installations (2014)

A Feed-in Tariff scheme for solar PV spurring the spreading of this technology through financial incentives was introduced in 2014. The scheme guarantees the purchase by the national utility company of RE-generated energy under a fixed price whose amount depends on the size of the installation. This is the second time that a Feed-in Tariff mechanism is introduced in Algeria; the first attempt was made in 2004 with decree No. 2004-92 on the Diversification of Power Generation Costs (full document available in pdf format: Algeria_Decree No. 2004-92 on the Diversification of Power Generation Costs). The scheme was soon interrupted due to the limited success caused by its poor design.

Full document of the 2014 Feed-in Tariff scheme is accessible here in pdf format: Algeria_Feed-in Tariff scheme for solar PV installations (2014)

 

Executive decree No. 2011-243 implementing a RE Fund for Investments (2011)

A RE Fund for Investments has been set by Executive decree No. 2011-243. The fund is meant to provide financial support to eligible investments in light of the national development plan and it is financed through a levy on oil tax revenues of 0.50 percent.

Full document accessible in pdf format: Algeria_Executive decree No. 2011-243 implementing a RE Fund for Investments (2011)

 

National Fund for Energy Management (FNME – 2000)

Similarly to the RE investment fund, an EE fund – the National Fund for Energy Management (FNME) – was launched in 2000 to support energy efficiency projects. Financing sources include taxes on natural gas and electricity. More information available on the Energy Efficiency fact sheet from RCREEE (see References).

 

AFOLU

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is the body responsible of forest management. In order to contrast desertification and deforestation, a National Reforestation Plan was adopted in 1999 setting the long-term target of 1.2 million hectares of forest planted by 2020. In 2014 the Ministry communicated that half of the target has been reached.

Full document accessible in pdf format: Algeria_National Reforestation Plan (1999)

 

References

IEA’s Algeria Climate and Energy Policy Overview 

ClimaSouth’s Algeria National Climate Change Policy

RCREEE Fact Sheet on Renewable Energy in Algeria (2012) (pdf)

RCREEE Fact Sheet on Energy Efficiency in Algeria (2012) (pdf)

International Policy

General features

  • Party to the UNFCCC (Annex II)

Date of signature: 13 June 1992
Date of ratification: 9 June 1993
Date of entry into force: 21 March 1994

  • Party to the Kyoto Protocol

Date of signature: N/A
Date of ratification: 16 February 2005
Date of entry into force: 17 May 2005

  • Voluntary signature of the Copenhagen Accord – associated without actions.

Algeria, as many other MENA countries, benefits from a series of multilateral agreements with the EU in relation to sustainable development, trade of energy and RE financing; agreements include the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the Union for the Mediterranean (UFM).

In March 2015 Algeria and Germany signed an energy partnership covering various areas of energy policy, inter alia trade of hydrocarbons, renewable energy development and improvement of energy efficiency.

A cooperation plan with Russia will result in nuclear energy use for domestic purposes starting from 2025.

Energy cooperation agreements have been set with a number of other countries such as Norway, the Netherlands, Kenya and Niger.

 

Negotiating position

Being a member of OPEC, the League of Arab States and the G77 group, Algeria has contrasting interests in relation to climate talks. This is due to the fact that the country is both a large fossil fuel exporter and one of the countries that are most affected by climate change.

Algeria is promoter of several initiatives at the MENA and African level with regard to regional adaptation and mitigation measures, although none of the agreed initiatives are legally binding.